Community Development


Institutional Affiliation









Community development is part and parcel of the process of improving communities through the guidance of professional ethos in social justice. It is important to consider and evaluate the manner in which different people serve their community their training and the manner in which they have been engaging public services for the benefit of society. Social justice is part of human interaction and as such, must be used to identify the challenges and the strong points in any community development efforts. Community development serves in different areas such as health, education and legal awareness of the various realities that are presented in real life today. The importance of community development cannot be discussed in the absence of those who contribute to the efficacy of the projects. Community workers are an important part of community service that must be evaluated in line with the projects that are being contacted. This paper will discuss the role of community workers in community projects and ensure to also discuss the core values of community workers in the execution of their services. In addition, the paper will discuss the professional discipline and community service for this project. Mental health issues in Australia have various ramifications in Australia. While there are concerns about the need for educating the public on how to deal with mental health situations, professional and communities must also be given this information so as to understand the needs, challenges and the demand for change in community service. Community service includes education, counselling, treatment, and care in engaging people in the change that must be achieved in a particular community.

The Role of Community Workers

A community worker is an individual who has chosen to carry out the duties of community work in a particular area of interest. In many jurisdictions, social justice is the main objective that pushes community workers to work on the cases that they work on a day to day basis. Community work is not specifically defined to be one area of specialization. There are different forms of community work that one must understand if at all, they are interested in community work. It is important to be dynamic because there are various changes in the environment that necessitate the intervention of community workers. The different areas of concern when it comes to community work are; community health, public affairs and leadership in the community, the presence of an effect of drugs in an area, sensitization of the community about the possibility of new information or phenomena (Scott et al, 2018). More often than not, communities have to deal with different areas of concern such as criminal gangs uprising, the cost of living in the country and community, the effect of drugs on youth and the contribution of education in understanding the type of leadership the community needs.

From the overview of what community service entails, it is important to consider the role of community workers in the projects they undertake in the community. The first role of a community worker is to act as an agent of the government or organization that will disseminate relevant information about a given issue in society. In this sense, community workers are entrusted by the public bodies to bring different types of information to the public. For instance, an issue such as drug abuse is rampant in almost every urban society in the country. The role of a community worker in a project to fight the influence of drugs in the country is to research on the drugs being used and/or abused in the community, simplifying the information into classes that the public can easily understand and providing this information to the target group. In most instances, community workers will undergo training on the specific type of information they should share and how they are expected to share that information with the community.

Another role that community workers are managing care transitions between different phases of life in the target audience. Community workers respond to certain types of challenges that communities face at given times. In the case of drug abuse, it is important that the community worker tracks the progress of a case right from when it is reported to its final conclusion. Serving as managers’ link the community worker to the various institutions or organizations of help that members in the community may need. It is also important to consider the progress of individual cases to give a report on the changes that have been effected in society. It helps the public health sector to identify the cocoon in a particular issue and be able to plan well on how the issue will be countered in the long run.

Core values of community workers

A community worker must espouse different values that will help them in the conduct of their duties. It is important that the community worker undergoes the right treatment to understand the various issues they are dealing with to give influence to future prospects as planned by the appropriate office. First, a community worker must be committed to the service they are seeking to provide to the community they are serving (Covert, Sherman, Miner & Lichtveld, 2019). With commitment, a community worker will not look at the monetary benefits of the community service they are providing. If the focus is on the monetary gains, the community worker will find themselves missing important appointments and work due to lack of logistical backing. Community work may sometimes require the individual to travel from place to place educating the public on the effects of drug abuse. If the sponsor organization does not provide the necessary transportation, the community worker will be required to support themselves through the process. An individual without the necessary support and commitment will thus not be able to achieve much in community service provision.

Secondly, community workers must be open to different ideologies and learning. They must possess excellent people skills and be caring towards those who they are going to serve in the different communities that they are working in. For example, community health workers dealing with patients affected by chronic diseases. The community worker must show empathy to those they are working with. It is required that the community worker also avoids instances where they sympathize with the patients for it is the only way through which the patients will be encouraged. In the example of those affected by illegal drugs, the community worker must identify the point of unison between them and the victim to be able to guide and counsel the patient into recovery. Being open means being receptive to new ideas. In the training modules, the community worker must showcase their skills in listening and understanding. Being a good listener and contributor helps in identification of the necessary challenges that need to be addressed.

Lastly, the community worker must be qualified in the area of expertise they are working on. A qualified person will easily be ready to absorb information on the circulation of a new drug, its effect, and target audience and how the drug might be countered in professional practice. If a community worker is dealing with a drug-related project, the member must have attended training in the specific field of practice and possess the adequate knowledge that a professional is required to have. In addition, the community worker must be sociable. In most instances, community health workers are required to deal with large groups of people at a particular time. It is important for the person to develop people skills and communication for them to be able to execute their work with the vivacity required. Through a dedicated personality, a community worker must be able to also collaborate with members from different professional backgrounds that will enable the person to engage positively with others.


Professional discipline and community area

The professional discipline for the paper is counselling. A person qualified to provide guidance and counselling sessions to members of the community affected by different issues is called a counsellor. A counselor is required to undergo tertiary training in the areas of psychology and the specific field in which they are required to practice. Counselling is a profession practiced by those who want to help other members of the society to become better versions of themselves through transforming their behavior and conduct in the process (Kaplan, Tarvydas & Gladding, 2014). A counselor is generally a trained psychologist whose main concern is understanding why certain behavior is rampant within a particular community. A counsellor will thus be willing to handle any social problem that is presented in the community by a member. In most instances, counsellors are consulted based on the advice of community leaders and those in charge. For instance, parents are required to identify the challenges their teenage children are going through and be able to ascertain if the children need professional counselling. In community service, a counselor will be consulted by a government department to work hand in hand with other professionals in addressing current problems in society.

The relation of the community sector to the manner in which counsellors are involved relates to the challenges in the particular community. For instance, it is possible to have a counsellor in a health facility whose regular patients are dealing with addiction and mental health issues (Javanparast, Windle, Freeman & Baum, 2018). Such a facility will require the presence of a counselor because of the fact that mental health issues must be observed and attended to as they progress. Mental health issues might also be caused by drugs and as such, the counselor will be responsible for guiding the individual through the process of recovering from addiction.

A community area can be classified as a block or area of focus for the community service. Community development workers are assigned duties based on the administrative boundaries that have been put in place by the government. For instance, a community area of focus for the assignment may be residential are in a city (Levecque et al, 2017). In the example of Adelaide city, the community area might be taken to be the low-income neighborhood in the area. Identification of a specific problem in the area such as drug abuse must be understood to bring credence to the manner in which it is involved. A community is will often have a group or groups of individuals who are related because of various factors. In the community area faced with the drugs problem, it is important to consider engaging the whole community to achieve change. The relationship of counsellors to low-income areas is twofold. First, the community needs counselors because a number of those affected by drugs are trying to recover and thus need community counselors to help them through the journey. On the other hand, counselors, in their nature like to handle cases that bring positivity to their practice. It is for this reason that the classification of community areas is important.

Community development project

The National Community-Managed Mental Health Sector Organisations Outcome Measurement Project. The project involves a collaboration between CMHA and the Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network (AMHOCN). The focus of the project is on the manner in which outcome measures are used in mental health-related issues in the communities across Australia. Mental Health issues have been increasingly reported in the country. Traditionally, it was not possible to engage in mental health issues due to the controversial nature of mental health. The project takes in results from different places to discuss how various factors are identified in mental health. The importance of community health provision is to ensure that the society is equipped with adequate knowledge on how the issues of mental health are addressed and how such issues play a role in the development of Australian communities. The results and objectives of the project are the provisions of a guidebook that will help give recommendations on the necessary tools to use while implementing mental health interventions in the communities.

Indeed, mental health issues in Australia have received increased attention in the past. The bad history is informed by a lack of awareness in the community on how to treat and relate with an individual faced by mental health issues. The objective of the project is to provide guidance in the necessary organizations where the uniform practice is undertaken in all communities across Australia (“Implementing Routine Outcome Measurement in Community Managed Organisations | AMHOCN – Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network”, 2019). The guidebook is a comprehensive solution manual that looks at various forms of mental health in Australia, how it affects different individuals and how these individuals are required to have the necessary skills for development. For instance, organizations had not organized manual on how to engage members with mental health issues. Through the manual, it is important to note that organizations can now measure outcomes of mental health issues across Australia using the same model. Having a similar model creates uniformity in medical and counselling practice in the area and how it is evaluated through the various methods of engagement.

Counseling is an important process in the project in all communities across Australia. For instance, the challenges faced by organizations in Sidney may be different from those in Adelaide. However, there are some similarities that may be combined to have an effect on the manner in which professional conduct their work. Counseling is part and parcel of the solution to mental health issues. If counsellors are able to receive training on how they are going to approach mental health patients in different settings in Australia, there will need to focus on the contribution of every member on the national discourse (Sue, Sue, Neville & Smith, 2019). Additionally, counseling mental health patients require the collaboration of different members from different professions. The approach and teamwork in measuring outcomes in Australia give credence to the manner of creating a new age of solving mental health issues. Engaging different types of measures and consultation has made it possible for the project to be conducted by counseling professionals across the country which has a bigger impact in reducing the problem.


Community development is a wide field of study that encompasses different facets of professionalism. The paper’s focus on mental health and drug abuse among teenagers has discussed the role of community development workers in addressing the current problems in the community. To begin with, the community health report focused on the role of the community worker in the provision for their job. The role of a community development worker has been identified as being education, sensitization, care, and counselling. The community workers, as seen, do not operate on their own. The definition of community area has given credence to the discussion as it provides context as to why certain actions are taken in specific areas instead of others. Community workers also possess certain values through which they are able to execute their mandate in the community. In so being such values include; honesty, commitment, patience, and empathy. These values are instrumental in ensuring that the community worker does not discriminate on a matter based on the challenges that they are having. The values in identifying the professional intervention that the community development worker will engage in. the professional service chosen for community service was counseling. Through counseling, a community worker is able to interact with members suffering from mental health and drug problems to ensure that the recovery process is smooth. The partnership with the community gives professional across Australia the mandate to investigate and provide solutions for mental health issues without a problem.

















Covert, H., Sherman, M., Miner, K., & Lichtveld, M. (2019). Core Competencies and a Workforce Framework for Community Health Workers: A Model for Advancing the Profession. American journal of public health109(2), 320-327.

Implementing Routine Outcome Measurement in Community Managed Organisations | AMHOCN – Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network. (2019). Retrieved from

Javanparast, S., Windle, A., Freeman, T., & Baum, F. (2018). Community Health Worker Programs to Improve Healthcare Access and Equity: Are They Only Relevant to Low-and Middle-Income Countries?. International journal of health policy and management7(10), 943.

Kaplan, D. M., Tarvydas, V. M., & Gladding, S. T. (2014). 20/20: A vision for the future of counseling: The new consensus definition of counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development92(3), 366-372.

Levecque, K., Anseel, F., De Beuckelaer, A., Van der Heyden, J., & Gisle, L. (2017). Work organization and mental health problems in PhD students. Research Policy46(4), 868-879.

Scott, K., Beckham, S. W., Gross, M., Pariyo, G., Rao, K. D., Cometto, G., & Perry, H. B. (2018). What do we know about community-based health worker programs? A systematic review of existing reviews on community health workers. Human resources for health16(1), 39.

Sue, D. W., Sue, D., Neville, H. A., & Smith, L. (2019). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice. Wiley.


The Poem ‘Songs of Myself’


The poem ‘Song of Myself’ uses leisureliness to present the perfect source of joy as being internal. In the use of leisureliness, the poem showcases the ups and downs of life where the individual is the master in the authorship of their worldly view. For instance, ‘I loafe and invite myself’ speaks to the manner in which self-actualization is an individual’s doing. Through the statement, the author avers that there will always be two sides to every story where the best manner of inclusion is discernment of both joy and happiness. In the beginning, self-invitation is a welcome gesture for an individual to perceive life and enjoy it to the best of their ability before it can finally disintegrate in the end. The poem speaks of the importance of self-appreciation as there is a way in which the individual takes care of the manner in which they make their decisions and their consequences. From the long lines of the poem, the reader is internalized into the slow approach that the reader should identify life with. Additionally, it is also important to mention that patience and restfulness are important factors of life. The ambitions of the poem must not be confused with the self-enjoyment relishes of the author.

The democratic project of the poem is to bring everybody on board. The inevitable approach that the author takes speaks of the concern that he has over other people that are facing life in the same circumstances that the author is facing. In this regard, it is important to point out that the author tries to elevate those who are less privileged in the society. From the American society, it is worthy to mention that the author is concerned about the rights of those who are generally on the receiving end. These are the poor, prostitutes, the disabled, and the slaves. For the democratic project, the author seeks to bring the government to the attention of the issues being faced by the general population and especially those that are disadvantaged. He does so through the proper institution of values that the government must look at.

Question 3

The indication and use of sublime in Whitman’s poem are represented in the use of shapes, sizes and the dangers brought out in the poem. According to the author, the universe itself acts in a subliminal way where it is eternal where change is the constant denominator. Through the shifting plates that the poem uses, the author also makes an allusion of the way that some phenomena cannot be traced today even though they were a reality. The author needs his audience to realize that nothing in the world is permanent. Even in the big size that the dinosaurs had, they were not able to cope with the constant. Everything, therefore, comes to an end.

Question 4

The poem does not take prisoners in any way. First, Whitman identifies those he thinks are sullen and are unaccepting to the realities of the poem. In the proverbial example of the Biblical God, Whitman sets out the ultimate punishment of non-compliance to be torment and punishment. The author does not take prisoners and goes on to threaten them with despair and doubt if they are unaccepting. Understandably long, the readers should not be threatened by the length but rather, should find the theme interesting to tag along in the poem.

Question 5

The lack of concern is not a problem in any way whatsoever in the poem. It is clear that Whitman understands the contradictions that he may have made while writing the lengthy poem. In democratic discourse, however, it is important to include different perspectives of life in the United States as they have been conceptualized by the author. Whereas there may be benefits for certain conduct, other issues may bring negative anecdotes to the reality that one is living with. In contemporary America, there are differences that the population has to live with. There is an increasing recognition of the gay community with their rights now protected under judicial law. There are other developments in the manner that the economy is run for the benefit of the public as well.

Stop Googling. Let’s Talk – A Review

Stop Googling. Let’s Talk” is a 2015 New York Times article by  Sheryl Turkle that chronicles the different influences that technological and accompanying devices have had on the modern human life as seen today. In the article, Turkle tackles the ever-increasing dependence on technological devices such as smartphones. As such, he points out, with applicable examples, how technology is turning the modern-day consumer into a robot of sorts. The major concern pointed out by Turkle is that technological devices such as smartphones have negatively influenced how people across the globe communicate. Sheryl has studied the psychology of online connectivity for over thirty years, and it is her influence that has caused her insight into human behavior in contact with technology to be much respected. Turkle uses different literary devices to explain the various assertions she is making in the making by use of direct quotes from interviews, psychological studies and personal opinion. She asserts that the overuse of technological devices has been the cause of ruined relationships and other social misnomers in the present day world. Through this exploration, I discuss the negative influences that technology on personal relationships in the spaces that technology has taken Centre stage in. I am convicted that technology has ruined social relationships both at home and other gatherings due to increased dependency.

Turkle is a long-serving scholar who has invested her life in the study connectivity, and as such, she points out that technological devices in use today have disintegrated the social structure that people used to. In her article, Turkle avers that present-day conversation do not carry the same meaning and weight that they used to carry when people were making conversations in the past (Opinion). The common assumption that has made the modern day citizen lose their empathy is the fear of missing out. Without checking on the incoming notifications on a cellular device or smartphone, the individual will feel left out and will thus be concentrating on two things at the same time. In an observation carried out by Turkle, every three out of six individuals in a meeting will be looking down on their phones. The other three will be left piecing together the little pieces of the discussion to the return of the others once the concentrated ones get bored. Through the lack of concentration, people have more meaningless conversations which make it hard to build relationships as was in the days of old.

Secondly, technology has caused the disintegration of social relationships based on the time that people spend on their devices. According to the studies done by Turkle, more and more people are increasingly spending time on their smartphones. The three people rule serves to encapsulate the reality of the matter in practice on the ground. On average, one will see numerous people walking on the streets while wearing earphones. For that matter, the rate of interaction with nature and the people one is passing by will be greatly reduced. With earphones on, the person is implying that they are perhaps enjoying music on the phone or they are talking to someone else on the other side of the line. With the absence of such personal touch between people in the public spaces, communication, and social connections have been negatively affected.

Group of young adult friends using smartphones in the subway

Moving on, the deterioration of social relationships at home and in the workplace is also caused by the developing effects of the use of smartphones and other technologies that take up most of their users’ time. Looking at the 3 – people rule example, it was noted that at a particular time, three out of six people in a meeting would have no concentration on the topic being discussed. The consequence of such reality is that the conversations will be shallow and non-engaging to the people involved. With such continued occurrence and ignorance of the topics being discussed, social and family relationships will be jeopardized. To the concern on the three people rule, social relations will be destroyed in the way that those concerned will be using the meeting. A member of the meeting might feel neglected from the non-concentration of the other members and will thus limit the reality of their thoughts and engage in usual chitchat that will not be appreciated by the other members. Furthermore, the fear of ‘missing out’ will delineate people from their concentrations and further destroy the existing links that the people have previously enjoyed.

Turkle is conversant with the effects of the use of social media, and information devices around the world. In her paper, she presents phones as more than accessories. In her words, “Our phones are not accessories, but psychologically potent devices that change not just what we do but who we are.” (Opinion). Understandably so, Turkle digs deep to the damage that has already occurred in the American society. Additionally, she cites an example where a student did not feel the meaning of being compassionate to another. Such a loss of emotions and attachment to people is an indication that social relations have been negatively affected by the increased use of smart devices in every sphere of life today.

Be that as it may, all hope is not lost. There is a solution that is proposed by Turkle which involves spending time in solitude. Every once in a while, new day millennials and all affected parties should spare time away from the rigors of keeping up with the updates. Having real conversations without worrying about what your smartphone is saying will start the journey o more harmonious and engaging relationships.















Works Cited

“Opinion | Stop Googling. Let’s Talk.”. Nytimes.Com, 2019,

Black Mirror – The Future in Technology

Fast technology in the series ‘Black Mirror’; Are we moving too fast for our own good?

“Black Mirror” is a 2011 series that purposes to show the advancement of technology in the new world we are living in. In real life, technology is controlling so much of human lives that there is a cause of alarm. This paper discusses the effects of fast technology in the series “Black Mirror” and the prediction and prophesy of a bleak future. The paper poses that humans are moving too fast for their own good. Fixated on the concept of showcasing the different types of devices and software on technology, the hit series has numerous anecdotes of what humans should expect if current digital trends are something to go by. The future will be determined by the actions of humans today. It has been showcased elsewhere how technology is going too fast for our own good. Agreeably, technology has its advantages. Using literature from a myriad of sources, it should be noted that the predictions and prophesies from the series are things that we should wait for.

The basis of the film series Black Mirror is that no matter how easy, bright and useful technology might be, the end will not be well with humanity. Destruction of relationships and endangering the privacy and security of humans has been termed as reason why we might want to take a look at what technology has in store for humanity. This paper purposes to discuss how first technology is evolving and the effects it has on our lives as we know them. The stand-alone episode series focuses on one technology at a time focusing on a particular aspect of life that will be endangered in future. There is a wide scale of purposeful study on the effects of technology would require a clear understanding of the movie and the various episodes as presented.
There are different aspects of technology that the series “Black Mirror” presents. The fact that technology is moving too fast and is a danger to the structure of humanity cannot be overemphasized. The paper will begin by the explication of the series, often finding out the history about the series. The writer and creator of the series will be evaluated on the basis of the stories that are created. The difference in the stories will be aligned to the dangers that are presented through the use of technological devices and a different manner in which the “Black Mirror” and globalized connections create.
The next part of the paper will handle specific literature about the fastness of technology and how it has influenced the lives of men as known today. After the literature review, the paper will again move on to the different parts of discussion. The discussion will feature different episodes of the series with supporting literature on how technology is moving fast and the effect it has had on humanity. A succinct conclusion will then be presented. In the paper, the argument is that technology is moving too fast and without the control that humans have the power to, then the world is bound to perish because of the effects of technology.
Literature Review
The dedication of modern entertainment reflects the state of affairs in relation to humans in their interactions with technology. The first aspect one has to understand before moving to the discussion is that literature exists on the topic of effects of technology. The world over has witnessed concerns on whether there are ways in which humans can better utilize technology for their good (Adorno & Horkheimer, 2002). One author that is presented with the best tactics of involvement features the different areas of operation that humans have.
In the advent of the use of the “Black Mirror”, there have been various issues that must be understood to ensure that there is enough reason to celebrate. The “Black Mirror” has brought about various issues that if evaluated and understood, will give an expressive manifestation of the lives of human beings in a way that the “Black Mirror” is driving us to lead our lives. In Nicholas Carr’s article ‘Is Google Making us Stupid?’ there are various points being presented for the argument that indeed, the use of the “Black Mirror” is turning America’s population (and the world) at large into zombies that would like to think of themselves as millenials. In fact, Carr’s argument are so insightive and lead the reader into a self-assessment escapade of ascertaining the motivation around Carr’s article. It is also important to consider the different manner in which the humanization of the computer machine is considered. It is therefore necessary for all the audience to introspect into the various issues raised to include how processing of information will be done. In the discussion, the essay will focus on the different view – points that have been handled through time and the manner in which rhetorical appeals have been used in his article to ensure that there is a truth and belief in what the author is saying. For assertions that are made in the essay, Carr uses different stylistic devices to make reality the computer that has zombie the human thought as will be discussed below herein.
To begin with, it is important to state that there is always a manner in which reading from “Black Mirror” sources disorients human thought. Reading from the tone that Carr adopts, it is as if his mind has been erratic since he began reading from the “Black Mirror”. In his assertions, “I get fidgety, lose the thread, [and] begin looking for something else to do.” (Online). This implies that reading over the “Black Mirror” completely alters his nomenclature from the natural self that he keeps mentioning was a better place. In his discussion of hyperlinks, Carr talks about them propelling one towards information that they could never have thought of if they were indeed reading on their own accord. The interpretation of this should be evaluated with a sound countenance of the different manner of discussions that have been made through reading of “Black Mirror” material. Already, Carr feels disillusioned and he does not seem to in himself carry out the very acts of intelligence that he used to carry out during his time before Google.
Carr’s discussion on the distraction of human beings through reading material online should point us to what we have been experiencing over the last period of 20 years. When reading on the “Black Mirror”, there are various pages one can visit for that little distraction from a gossip column that pops up while we are glued to our screens. To understand the nature of advertising, different companies have come with mouthwatering advertisements on different pages of the “Black Mirror” which will distract the reader from the points they are supposed to be gaining knowledge from. Through this distraction, reading will be periodic and incoherence. There are different studies which speak to the coherence in thought affected by coherent reading. Therefore, if someone were to be distracted, then it means that they would not get the very information they were seeking like that individual who was concentrated on a book. Using his stylistic rhetorical appeal study from the University College of London, Carr’s article quotes;
“It is clear that users are not reading online in the traditional sense; indeed there are signs that new forms of “reading” are emerging as users “power browse” horizontally through titles, contents pages and abstracts going for quick wins. It almost seems that they go online to avoid reading in the traditional sense.” (Online).
In explaining the above quote, Carr introduces a new term, “intellectual technologies.” Carefully thought about, his thoughts revolve around the very nature of the information that we process from the technological devices that we have. It is in the light of such assertion that Carr thinks we are becoming stupid as we continue to indulge in online information digging and reading.
Moving on, the second point that Carr inadvertently uses to bring the argument to the belief that has captured this essay is the manner in which “Black Mirror” reading is changing the way we think. In the long run, this makes us less contemplative than prior years when humans were thoughtful and introspective. The information we mostly find on the “Black Mirror” is not filtered in any manner. The information, as Carr presented in his essay indicates the fact that the information we consumed is only pushed to our side through advertisements and hyperlinks. We never seem to control what we read or consume any more. Carr likens this to the mechanical clock which would better explain the various manifestations of our actions in our lives. The mechanical clock, he claims, is responsible for what we eat, what we drink, what time we wake up and the various hobbies we engage in. through these examples and rhetoric appeal, Carr manages to convince us on how we are becoming stupid.
Thirdly, there are certain values that we associate with online reading. These are efficiency and gathering of information rather than its understanding. As men, Carr thinks this is our undoing from the very manner in which he brings up examples in rhetorical appeal. This is where he turns to Google and from the reading on the paragraph on the mechanical watch, the developers of Google wanted to make something that would be as smart as people if not smarter. This must be understood as the human undoing. Developing conceptually intelligence machines and devices is worrisome to human beings and this is why the thought of being inferior to what has been made by humans perplexing (Sparrow, Liu & Wegner, 2011). At the end of the article, Carr somewhat gives a warning of what machines and technology has brought to humanity. He avers that “ナas we come to rely on computers to mediate our understanding of the world, it is our own intelligence that flattens into artificial intelligence.” This leaves humanity with skepticism. It must then be said that humans do not have the control they once had over their affairs. Such realistic introspection into a profit motivated “Black Mirror” is what then makes us worry and feel stupid.
As Carr writes, he quotes from different studies that make a point to assert his averments. Looking at the title, Carr seems to be inclined to share with the audience the problems that the “Black Mirror” has brought on humanity. This is therefore a previously-thought article with a keen evaluation on human behaviour and the manner in which the “Black Mirror” has affected how we relate to each other through the information that we find on the “Black Mirror”. In his final statements, Carr’s conclusion is the fear of eventual dependence on the “Black Mirror” as the sole source of information the world will have. To understand the article, this conclusion follows several studies that have been presented and these actualize the sentiments he makes on the stupidity that the world will be infiltrated with in the near future. Information overload is nigh and just as the 2001 movie scene ‘A Space Odyssey’ where he identifies more with the computer rather than the robot that look like him. He is an overloaded device.

In summary, the film series ‘Black Mirror’ speaks of the reality of the effects of depending on the technology for all the information we require. It is in this manner that most world populations have become stupid basing on the pummeled information that we do not take care to process and understand (Benjamin, 2002). Importantly, Black Mirror uses several rhetoric appeal styles in its assertions by making comparisons to scientific studies on human behavior and observation. He finishes by making a prophecy on the future of information which galvanizes all the points he makes about making the story believable to audiences across the world. It is an article that speaks to the nature of man today and future as he foresees told in a very appealing style. Black Mirror’s biggest frustration is its failure to recognize the parts of its convoluted narrative that raise the most interesting questions. The real moral dilemma in “Game of Consequences” is not which people deserve to die, but how the players will react once they find out that the #DeathTo hashtag actually gives them the power to enter other people into a lottery of death. Twitter users willfully contributing to public executions could lead to a more enthralling exploration of human nature than the villain-focused story the episode winds up telling instead. Black Mirror runs on the idea that we need to see the worst parts of ourselves reflected in the soft glow of a computer screen before we can to do something about it. But the show’s best episodes do more than just shine a light on those worst parts and smugly walk away.
In another episode dubbed “Men Against Fire” is set in some indeterminate future where soldiers are augmented with an implant called MASS, which displays information and reinforces approved behavior. A catastrophe has infected some people – Roaches – who have begun to steal food from villagers, which prompt the soldiers to hunt and kill the invaders. One soldier, Stripe, gets into a firefight where a Roach uses a device that makes his MASS implant glitch. When he returns to the field, the creatures he saw as monsters are simply human: the implant has been changing how he sees them to make him and his fellow soldiers more effective at tracking and killing them. This military is essentially mopping up unwanted people in society, using the implants to turn them into monsters to make it easier for the soldiers to pull the trigger.
Technology demonizes one’s enemies
What saves various episodes in “Black Mirror” is the much more horrifying idea that this government perpetuated a holocaust by literally demonizing its enemies. That feels realistic: in every war, soldiers are trained to dehumanize enemies, to maximize their effectiveness by minimizing the impact of potentially taking another life (Anders, 1964). In a world where that process can be programmed into soldiers, what’s left unsaid is the way any undesirable can be targeted with the flip of a switch. And this army of the future uses its implants in other interesting ways, like rewarding soldiers with vivid sex dreams as an incentive to carry out missions.
The episode is a showcase of numerous ideas that do not come together in complete. In the usual characteristic style of the movie, there are different ways in which complicity is analyzed. Through review, there has been discomfort amongst the public concerning the various ways in which technology is ruining human lives and humanity.
The rate of change in different episodes of the series is an observable feature that is genius to the film series “Black Mirror.” Technology makes human lives longer. It is also important that the increasing rate of change be equal to the different ways in which technological advancements have come. Apart from smartness and he appeal to look urban, institutional lag is a major concern. According to Ellul (1964) climate change is an issue that is of concern. Through green technology, it is now possible to create a world of nature that is respected on man.
One other effect that the series “Black Mirror” has on humanity is on the way that the public gets misinformed on the various issues through the use of social media. The adoption of Facebook cannot be compared to the adaptation that man is seeking. Man is striving to keep up with the major concerns of the despotic ways in which human relations are structured on social media. Similarly, online education appears to sharply reduce costs and expands access to great teachers. Yet early adopters encounter the paradox that they quickly reach a level of knowledge where they gain more from face-to-face instruction.
The pernicious effects of lag persist longer than expected. The peril may be getting worse, in part because adoption of new digital tools is accelerating. Amazon, Twitter, Instagram-all seemed to have established themselves with the rapidity of a hurricane.
In the distant past, adoption rates were slower, easing the challenge of overcoming social and cognitive lag. The telephone provides a classic example. When Bell patented telephony in 1876, the main benefit was to deliver a better form of telegraphy-of sending coded messages more cheaply and easily than Western Union. Many years passed before the telephone’s dominant purpose was talking to others. As late as 1940, barely one in three households had a phone.
The mobile phone revolution at first gave new life to disembodied chatting. Yet today, many prefer texting. The telephone mainly provides a Web connection. Once more, as a century ago, human conversation occurs best face to face. If we are condemned to lag behind technological shifts, can we do anything to more quickly close the gap? Surprisingly, the history of touch screens reveals much about the complexities of lag. Business first adopted touch screens to assist cashiers in the 1970s and ’80s. The equipment was bulky, slow, and expensive. Another 20 years passed before Steve Jobs standardized Apple handheld devices around touch screens. Jobs insisted that touch screens be the main way to control Apple’s small devices. He even gambled that Apple’s high volumes would dramatically drive down the cost and improve the quality of these screens. Because the underlying technology was mature, Jobs’s gamble paid off. Without his bold move on “forward pricing,” touch-screen technology might have remained trapped in the limbo of lag.
Lag is a bittersweet reminder that facing the future with courage involves a willingness to let go of cherished traditions in the name of pragmatic adjustments. While there will always be technologies that are conceived and created for evil, destruction, and otherwise nefarious purposes, most aren’t. Most are created to make our lives better. It’s people who find ways to use these new tools for corrupt and dishonourable ends. People in the field of technoethics are working to make sense of our relationship with technology as new technologies emerge and evolve in ways unintended and sometimes unseen by their creators. Joseph Marie Jacquard could not have predicted his invention of punch cards for weaving looms in the early 1800’s would eventually evolve and make possible Donkey Kong and computer viruses. Whether it’s the “Black Mirror” of things, cellular services, social media, gene therapy, there are always those who seem to find a way to misappropriate technologies to serve their own agenda, even at the expense or demise of others (Benjamin, 2002). There are times too where people create new technologies or repurpose old ones just because it is possible, without considering if they should. Just because humans were capable of creating the atom bomb, pop up ads or The Bachelor, doesn’t mean they should have done it.
The future as depicted in works of science fiction, especially of the multiplex variety, is almost uniformly dystopian. The bleakness of these visions annoys technology enthusiasts, who worry that cumulatively they give machines a bad name. As the headline on an essay in Wired magazine put it, “Stop Writing Dystopian Sci-Fi – It’s Making Us All Fear Technology. For sheer pungency of dystopian imagination, it would be hard to beat Black Mirror, an anthology TV series in the style of The Twilight Zone – a different story with a different cast each week – originally produced by the BBC and subsequently continued on Netflix. The title refers to the variety of screens that have proliferated in our daily lives, and that all-too-often seem to dominate them. The twelve episodes produced so far (a new season is in the works) present a consistently dark vision of our technological destinies, not in some galaxy far, far away, but right here, and soon. As the show’s creator, co-executive producer and main writer Charlie Brooker put it, Black Mirror is “about the way we live now – and the way we might be living in 10 minutes’ time if we’re clumsy.”
Indeed, one of the uncanny things about Black Mirror is how plausible the disturbing outcomes it predicts can seem. A cartoon figure who profanely ridicules the proposals of serious politicians comes to power and installs a fascist state. The pursuit of affirmation on social media becomes a desperate drive to be liked at all costs – or else. A man sleeps in a room that is surrounded on all sides by ceiling-high commercials he can’t turn off. Hackers record people’s most intimate moments and blackmail them into performing criminal acts lest their secrets be posted on the “Black Mirror” for the world to see.
In relation to the writer of the series, it is important to look at the various ways in which humans are understood. While being interviewed, Charlie Brookner focuses on the human aspects of adaptation of humans. In most situations, humans are at the forefront in ensuring that there is a manner of relation that has to be understood for the betterment of human life. As much as one may be a gadget freak, one should also worry about the way in which they respond to technology in case.
Technology enthusiasts don’t worry nearly enough. Regularly they share with us their almost messianic confidence that the technologies they’re working on will deliver us from every trouble and toil. That anyone would doubt their potential to fulfill that promise seems beyond their comprehension. The election of Donald Trump as President of the United States, with the help of Russian hackers and boatloads of blatantly deceptive “news” on the “Black Mirror”, is a case in point. Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg initially called accusations that fake news influenced the election “a pretty crazy idea” – but eventually conceded that maybe it wasn’t such a crazy idea after all. The denial of a former software engineer for Twitter cracked more quickly. “For my @ twitter alum friends,” he tweeted the day after Trump’s victory, “What did we build?”
Dystopian works of science fiction are, for these reasons, an expression not only of understandable anxiety but of appropriate concern. They could, if taken seriously, serve as petitions for restraint. Unfortunately, as exercises in fiction and entertainment, they are too easily dismissed, overshadowed by the real-world temptations of technological power. Would that the risks they foresee were taken more to heart. To paraphrase the wisdom of one of my favorite bumper stickers: “If you’re not worried, you’re not paying attention.
While most current IT predictions are based on extrapolation, they’re often created from “inside-the-box” thinking, linearly predicting the near future trends. This information may be valuable, but Black Mirror looks at things differently. They start with “What if XYZ technology truly takes over? How would this impact businesses, countries, societies, and people?-?like you and me?” Both ways of predicting the future technology trends have their value. I believe insights for short, medium, and even long term will help societies, governments, businesses, and people. Everyone, at some point in time, should consider answers to some of these questions:
“How can we be ready for the future?”
“How could we benefit from these developments?”
Application-centric cloud services?-?the new normal.
Forbes predicts that 83 percent of enterprise workloads will be in the cloud by 2020. In today’s cloud and mobile-first world, you see many organizations transitioning from on-premises infrastructure and desktop-focused solutions to public cloud and application-centric services. The benefits to IT are just that strong. And business users just want secure access to all of their applications and data so they can get stuff done. They don’t really care about the mechanics of the infrastructure?-?it just needs to work. Keeping focus on the application and not on the desktop is also important in today’s Chromebook, Macbook, and Windows enterprise device-dominated world.
Hiding complexity for consumers while keeping the business secure and nimble proves to be a challenging task for business leaders and IT professionals. Virtual Client Computing?-?application remoting and desktop delivery solutions from the (public) cloud is an upstart. But there is a challenge here too: technology is going into extreme ends to be able to have the impact it has on different people in the current world. The technology writer byCharlie Brooker’s hit television series Black Mirror is no doubt and interesting appeal of how far the world and life will go if there is no response to the current quagmire. In the episode ‘Playtest’ the character Cooper finds himself stuck in London after his information has been stolen from his credit card. While still in the hotel, he is able to subscribe to a work opportunity which comes via the enabling elements of phone technology. He even succeeds in securing enough money to afford plane ticket back home. However, the days that follow see him trapped in a mansion that seems so surreal. Although it is clear that he cannot be harmed, the virtual reality presented in the episode may way too mind boggling. It is an indication that we (as humans) should perhaps go slow on the technology that is being invented today.
There have been concerns that different people have on the new technology wave as being gloomy and doom. Indeed, there are positive influences that technology has brought to the world as we know it and that reliving memories can become a reality. Being able to relive the various memories is a welcome undertaking in the world as we know it and it is in the same lines that technology should be understood. There are memories lost from the fact that people’s mind fails at times and people become motionless. With technology, it is possible to go through history and ride along dragons, dinosaurs and mammoths. No other age has witnessed such developments and it is for that reason that all will be considered proper.
Virtual Reality Without the Bloat of Hardware
The digital world has demands of its own. Before a gamer is able to play the game, they are required to fit on bulky headsets which may be uncomfortable for the player. Tracking camera availability and linking the same with technology is another issue that new technologies present. The VR gaming area and the purchase of a superior computer must be a baggage to many. There can be a better way in which these technologies can be synchronized for better user experiences.
In previous gaming and industry related technology, virtual reality was not as advanced as it is today. In Black Mirror, the important point is the invasive way in which creativity creates the games witnessed in the virtual world today. In the presence of a computer screen, one can be able to identify the various ways in which they relate and interact with others on virtual space. It is for the same reasoning that virtual reality is becoming a phenomenon in major cities in the world. In the long run, the same is supposed to create different ways under which people come together.
An Invasion of Privacy
New technology is perhaps one of the reasons why people do not live with their privacy. Today, the world is becoming more invasive and without the input of personal effort, then everything will work out as planned. Today more than ever, it is easy to buy fitness trackers. Buying phones is now more than easy as all one got to do is make a few clocks on the computer screens and they will have the phone delivered to their door. As such, there is no privacy on the part of the online consumer living through the murky waters of online presence.
AI and Mind Reading
Artificial Intelligence has both benefits and its losses. When one requires to remember the memories they had in particular times, virtual reality has the opportunity of doing so. In the ‘Playtest’ episode, Artificial intelligence is seen as going against the will of Cooper. For technology to have the ability to make the players in the game vulnerable. The importance of technology should not be on the aggrandizement of what is not real. Deeper fears of mind reading live on the minds of modern-day millennials. The terrifying advances of mind reading and the effect it may have on society is extremely worrying.
An understanding of how machines work should give insight into the reason why modern-day humans have concerns for the explication of the technology available today. Machines, do not have emotions and cannot show empathy as may be the expectation of modern-day people (Anders, 1960). Machines only carry out the instructions given to them by people. On the other part, humans have the ability to feel emotions. Through Artificial intelligence, there should be different areas under which human emotions will be submerged. It will be the erosion of human edifice.
Right now, developers are creating software that can, in essence, “read our mind”. The implementation of technology must regard the different areas of engagement where there is need for performance of the needs that need to be addressed. Imagining someone being monitored by the computer device they bought for themselves. It is important to note the various ways in which humans need to keep in touch with themselves and in relation to others as well. The importance of the value of human life must be understood before the developments of technology. The abuse that occurs on online platforms should be a cause for concern for the various people that the technology is serving for themselves.
There is indeed going to be boundless fear on various parts of life. Too much comfort as such is a great danger to humanity as we know it. It is for this reason that it is feared that humans may soon become enslaved by the same machines they are depending on for performing much of the tasks they are required to do.
Either way, it seems like we’re moving in that direction. Game creators are trying to make virtual reality more immersive than ever. It’s only a matter of time before our virtual experiences affect our consciousness as well as our motor functions. In fact, there is available intel on the rise of different technologies that should be reason for worrying. Black Mirror has presented the dangers pointing out the terrific nature of gaming as terrifying. The horror games that are identified will make humans more savage. After all is said and done, the world is moving too fast and humanity may be slow on noticing the various effects of technology and the use of the internet.
Adorno, Theodor and Horkheimer, Max. Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002.
Anders, Gnther . Franz Kafka. New York: Hilary House Publishers LTD, 1960.
Benjamin, Walter. Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings. Volume 3, 1935-1938. Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 2002. Benjamin, Walter. Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings. Volume 3, 1935-1938. Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 2002.
‘Black Mirror’ Season 3 Review: The Future Is Slightly Sunnier on Netflix”. Collider. 4 October 2016.
Brooker, C. (2012). Be right back. Black Mirror.
Brooker, C. (Writer), & Harris, O. (Director). (2013). Be Right Back [Television series episode]. In C. Brooker (Producer), Black Mirror. London: Channel 4.
Corcoran, M. (2012). The Impact of New Media Technologies on Social Interaction in the Household.
Brooker, C. (Writer), & Harris, O. (Director). (2013). Be Right Back [Television series episode]. In C. Brooker (Producer), Black Mirror. London: Channel 4.
Ellul, Jacques. The Technological Society. New York: Vintage Books, 1964.
Mumford, Lewis. The Story of Utopias. Bibliobazaar, 2008.

Black Mirror in Review








New technology in the film series ‘Black Mirror’; Does the use of Social media bring the world Closer and Solve the current societal problems?


The film series “Black Mirror” presents a dystopian universe where the use of technology has a bearing on human lives as we know it. In the series, stand-alone episodes present different aspects of technology and how they are contributing to the development and the downfall of man. It is expected that in the future, technology will play a big part of the dealings that humans will have. In addition, the twilight reality that ‘Black Mirror’ ensembles indicate that technological devices should not be completely and blindly trusted. It is for this reason that most episodes are not a continuity of what we have always known to be true. The discussion in this paper features new technology in the film series “Black Mirror.” The essential part of the research is whether the use of social media brings humans closer to solve the myriad problems in society.

As a creature of its own, Black Mirror is a satirical horror story of the future and how dangerous it poses to be when we explore the potentials that it has. It is a darker version of humanity. Rather than bringing people closer through connecting them in a simple way, social media has become a tool of regret to the grund norm of human existence. The alternate forms of reality presented in the series are appalling to say the least. An extrapolation of different themes and issues are the point of discussion. Ultimately, social media, if not controlled, is bound to disintegrate the human society as we know it.


The universe presented in the anthology series “Black Mirror” is dystopian and may be difficult to fathom at the first thought. In the world we live in today, it is important to look at various ways in which different events and developments affect the manner in which human life is carried out. The first arguable benefit that technology through its numerous inventions has brought is making work and life easier. In today’s digital world however, humans, as it seems are already surpassing what they had imagined possible.

The new technologies cannot be compared to the traditional forms of communication that we knew about a few decades ago. Undeniably, technology has brought with itself, various platforms to bring people together and the larger part of the universe are happy about it. However, it is important to determine and evaluate other ways in which technology rules the world. The presumable assumptions of a world brought together through technology has been long glorified as part of the ways in which people relate with each other. The inventions brought by technology are disintegrating the human structure like never before. In today’s digital space, there are increasing concerns about the privacy and the security of different individuals in the world. It has become a circus.

Having mentioned the above, this paper purposes to discuss the various ways in which technology influences the world. It is important to mention the various factors that come into play when humans interact on the digital space. It is also important to consider the various ways in which technology serves to improve communication of the people across the universe (Ungureanu, 2015). The major point in the paper is to therefore look at how technology has helped bring the world together and look at how human lives are continuously being influenced by social media. In doing so, this paper will look at the film series “Black Mirror” with a view of ensuring that all the information being processed is related to an entertainment source. “Black Mirror” is a 2011 British anthology series that focuses on the development of technology in prophetic fashion. Through the stand-alone episodes, we can identify the various ways in which social media and technology as a whole is influencing the way humans are handling themselves – both online and on the streets.

The use of technology and social media are some of the major part time activities that people cross the world do today. The importance of keeping in touch cannot be overemphasized. However, the major question remains, are we really getting close or are we on the road to destruction through social media?












Literature Review

Different authors have weighed in on the manner in which the use of technological devices and social media affect the world that we live in today. Literature on technology is growing. In the distance past, not many authors had thought about the manner in which different forms of engagement across social media platforms were set up. According to the Pew Research Centre Data (2017) most of the people in the world today communicate through social media. Social media is one of the bravest mechanizations of human communication that the modern world acknowledges. The Pew Research Centre Data focuses on the number of medium that humans ordinarily use to communicate on a daily basis. For the importance of credence, it is instrumental to include real data that shows how humans are interacting today. The most commonly used medium that can be referred to social media is definitely Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. There is a myriad of other social media platforms that are used by different people across the world. However, it is important to look at the very needs that social media presents in the modern world today. There are sites such as Linked In which connect different professionals and there are various other chatrooms that are specific to various purposes. That being said, the Pew Research Centre helps in the explication of the real numbers that are used for social media communication.

Bruns (2015) tries to explain the meaning of social media and the attached effects to the meaning. In the ordinary sense, social media should be defined through the social aspects that social media is. The sociality of social media stems from the fact that different people have different ways in which they relate to each other and it is the reason certain relationships are structured in the manner in which they are structured. For instance, it is important to take a look at the various ways in which human relations are structured. According to Quin & Papacharisi (2014), there are different ways under which social media classification is important. There are different cultural motivations to certain problems across the world that can be identified to create the right atmosphere to the topic of discussion. Through the motivation that Quin and Papacharisi (2014) present, culture is a defining factor when looking at how different social media platforms affect present life.

In the current digital world, we are living in, humanity has devised ways in which social structuring has focused on the culture of being and being noted. It is important to look at the various ways under which communities relate to each other and the responses that follow after that. While others will be comfortable at looking at relationships that matter for the modern-day millennial relationships, others will be focusing on the manner in which the various ways of relationships can be curtailed (Salem, 2015). The shift to online spaces does not only augment the dangers that physical spaces have but also create a platform where anonymous attackers from the physical world are on a leash. To capture the scenario, different members of society have either been conned, abducted, bullied and threatened on social media. It is no doubt that social media is run by able humans who have the capacity to think and relate with others when it comes to creating relationships.

Another important aspect that has been neglected by scholars concerning human life in the series “Black Mirror” is the research available on representation on social media. By all standards, there are incidents on social media where identity theft is an issue. Brooker and Harris (2011) present different scenes and episodes in which human communications are carried out online and the relations can be made anonymous. Representation as an issue is properly covered by Brooker and Harris (2011). Different people can cease to be themselves and take upon the identity of other to create a sensation of belonging or attack those that may be deemed as enemies. Whereas there are those who argue that social media as presented in the film series “Black Mirror” is fast and unsafe for humans, there are those who argue that social media has brought them the necessary gifts that humanity had been lacking for long.

Mediation of relationships is another aspect that social media scholarship has been focusing on. “This social media-logic makes it hard to forge meaningful connections. The character of Wes serves as an example of this. He looks for something “more than just sex” but cannot find it, he is lonely and desperate. He therefore winds up in the Quagmire, a sort of dodgy nightclub where people seem to live out their darkest desires. The Quagmire can be read as a liberation, living “limitless”. People can come here to do what the offline world doesn’t allow them to do. But it is not represented this way. The Quagmire stands alone in a dusty, raw desert – its isolation emphasized by remote, subdued guitar music. Inside the Quagmire, the people are dressed in black, leather, chains, horns, etc., everything is tinted in a green, red or blue hue, with bright white lights flashing on the scene while hard rock music plays, showing people kissing, holding a snake, choking someone with plastic, someone in a cage… (screenshot 2.14 & 2.15) All of this combined creates a dangerous and scary atmosphere. It could be seen as a visualization of the “Badlands” theme where the Internet is framed as a geographical location where people are more likely to be different, creepy or completely dangerous” (Rosewarne, 2016).

The influence of technology and the advent of the internet has created more interesting realities in the world than we can see today. To put the scope of this paper, it is important to acknowledge the differences between the opposing benefits and the disadvantages of technology as we know it. Tucker (2014) looks at different ways in which different scholarships can be handled. In that manner there is a way in which different people will have their different ways of communicating with each other. From 1995, the use of social media has been on the increase. There are increasing concerns that regard to the literature that people are using to gain their different models of operation in the world. The important consideration would be to look at ways under which different people relate and how they interpreted the various issues that have been aboard the social following in the years that have been coming to fruition.

Black Mirror is an extension of the imaginations that the different people in the world have. It is important to mention the various factors in which human life is controlled by social media. It is also important to look at the contribution of social media to the well being of the society. Perfect enough, Black Mirror, as the name presents mirrors where the world is headed to if the obsession with social media is anything to go by. There is research on the uses of social media. Various research also exists on the reality of media as exposed in the series and ways in which the same will become the basis of the prophecies that Brooke held before writing the anthology series that is Black Mirror.

The importance of communication is one side of the coin while ruin and damage stay on the other side of the coin. The extended use of social media as presented by Parigi et al., (2014) point to the fact that there are numerous concerns that have been already been raised on social media. Other than bringing people together, social media increasingly makes people depressed and the end is not usually a justification of means. For instance, the Season 1 episode “I will be Right Back” showcases how the use of social media can lead to damaging reports. In the episode, the woman involved with her husband happens to lose him. Through contact with other people it becomes apparent that she cannot deal with the loss. Through technology however, she gets a chance to have a digital form of her husband. What follows is rudimental trial where a codified body tries to mimic the role of the woman’s husband. The repercussions are gory. It is clear from the episode that although human technology may give rise to body forms that are similar to our loved ones, human life will remain part of daily mysteries. The reasoning behind the thought is that different trials have been made to make it possible for humans to relive their lives. However, natural aspects such as agility, emotions and acting in relationships cannot be relieved. It is in the same parlance that literature will help in the explication of the issues.


“Black Mirror” is the first anthology series to relate the future of technologies and social media as we know it. In the beginning, the episode all our history is presented. In the episode, it is possible to record all the events that one has had, their experiences and other activities that a person may have done all through their lives (Blazer, 2017). The episode acts out as an expression of the different ways in which different people relate to each other. On one hand, there is character that likes to watch the different memories that re lived between his friends. The episode showcases the cheating patterns of one woman with her ex-boyfriend while still in a relationship with her current boyfriend. Through dinner, the girlfriend gives signs of stiffness which are noticed by her husband. The obsessed husband comes to find out that the wife has indeed been cheating and he later sets upon a mission of finding out the truth.

To begin with, the episode is an explication of what we should expect as human beings and the things that should necessarily be included in the manner in which the use of social media and other mediums of communications are structured. The fact that the people were able to save all their lives through a lens in their eyes is one thing that should be discussed. The first part of the discussion relates to the manner in which different emotions and memories are shared between the individuals that are kept. In other instances, one finds that one may lose their memory through forgetfulness while another will lose their most treasured memories through old age, accident or disease. In such a situation, the technical application of the device to store one’s knowledge to be viewed by the person at their convenience is welcome. The other side as shown in the episode, “All your memory” is sad.

In the episode, the relationship between different friends was supported by the technology to retain various memories of those who had agreed to it. Once the husband starts suspecting his wife, he is able to question her for the activities she has been doing behind closed doors. The end is that he decides to remove off the device since it gives him the memories that he would not want to remember. He choses to turn back to humanity. the disadvantage about the device is that one can be able to record and replay various memories as they wish at any time. Also, the person can successfully hide some information from the person they love. In such a case, the social fragmentation of society is under threat. The importance of the story is to showcase that no matter how close social media and technology tries to bring us together, it will not be for the good reasons. I nature, man is supposed to be remembering only the interesting parts of his life while disregarding those that he may not have liked. However, the technological devices through social relations look at the different aspect of making the human brain more of a computer with commands to execute. It leads to violence and disintegration of the human folly and love shared between friends.

The virtual reality of social media and the opposite pseudonym capabilities that different people pull on social media platforms is alarming. For instance, it is important to consider various ways under which different people will be created to bring the harmonious relations that existed before technology and relations through social media. In today’s social media propagated lifestyles, thousands are losing out on cash, friends and family because of the insolence of criminal characters who roam social media platforms on the daily. There have been abductions, deaths and raids that have been planned through social media. Through this technology and relations, humans are moving further from each other.

In the episode “Be Right Back,” the audience is introduced to Martha and Ash who are in their thirties. The two have a child an. The two are in the process of moving into the old house that belonged to Ash’s family. The sudden death of Ash spells doom for Martha as Ash remains the only one she had identified with in the need to become on of the best characters that life would have brought. Through a friend, Martha learns of a software that collects all data that is public and focuses on the mimicking of different characters in life. She later finds out she is pregnant, she is interested in texting the virtual Ash whose response is similar to what the real person might have done. After the two are conversing, Martha decides to buy the real imitation of her husband with whom they develop a mutual relationship. In the first instance, her instincts tell her that she is indeed living with the real Ash. After talking to the sister, she realizes that the Ash she has been talking to is just a simulation with little care to innocent feelings.

Finding out that different simulations can create a connection between humans and technology is alarming. In the present, people are able to buy human replicas of lovers. However, the point of concern is that not many of those identified in the movie really connect on the human level. It is through virtual connection that we see people being more connected to their phones than to real persons. An example is where a campus student spends almost all their time on social media talking to “friends.” The sad reality is that the friends the person is talking to do not really mean anything and the person may even be unwilling to go out and socialize with them. What Martha feels towards the replication of her husband is a mere imagination of the memory. It denies her the opportunity to move on with life and extends her sadness to something that cannot really sleep, feel or personally understand what the person involved is going through.

‘Be Right Back’ has different discussions points that must be evaluated herein. Although social media is meant to make people more social, the reverse is actually the truth. In the episode, Martha has her sister. After she establishes contact with the imitation of her dead lover, she disconnects from the world, often going for walks on phone and finally bringing the replica at home to live with. As a result, her sister Naomi is left out in the cold which means that any human may be tempted to chose the virtual representation of a person that connecting with the real person in life.

Another episode in the first season of the TV series anthology s San Junipero. In the episode that is fairly long, Yorkie and Kelly live in San Junipero. The town is renowned for the party life and people do not take human relationships with the seriousness they deserve. Through Yorkie and Kelly, Brooke showcases a rare exemplification of the life in a relationship between two human beings. Although virtuality offers more freedom and opportunity, human relations are moving further and further away from where they used to be in the past.

In “Be Right Back” there are anecdotes of social disintegration. For instance, Martha talks to Ash in the following manner, “Just checking you’re still solid. You keep vanishing. Down there {points at his phone}. It’s a thief, that thing.”- Martha, segment 1.2. It is an indication that humans are so attached to their phones that they barely notice the presence of another around them. The irony of the matter is that different people talk to different people on social media. In real life these persons may fail to say hello to each other then pretend to be real friends on the internet. It seems as though humans have lost a sense of community and direction and would prefer to be alone in the company of pseudonyms rather than engage with real people. In scene 1.2, Ash is a representation of what many have termed being ‘on.’ It means that an individual would rather be on rather than communicate with a real person requiring real conversations with (Turkler, 2011). Sara compounds this by adding that Ash was “…a heavy user, he’d be perfect.” – Sarah, segment 1.4.

Moving on, social media and related technology look at the different ways under which Ash represents the modern-day millennial. The cause of Ash’s death as implied is the fact that he is always on. There are various parts of human life that one must take care of before they set upon a journey, no matter how short that journey might be. Boren (2011) is of the opinion that Black Mirror as a series identifies the different situations that one must have to bring justice and competence to the table.

According to Steenhaut (2017) “In the storyline, it is implied that Ash’s being always “on” has caused his car accident. Due to an unexpected work assignment, Martha can’t accompany Ash to return the rented van. Ash mocks he has to “drive all the way there alone, pick up the car alone, drive all the way back alone”, emphasizing each “alone”. Boren (2015) deems this dialogue to be an actual reflection of Ash dreading to be alone. Turkle (2011) indeed states that being always on brings new anxieties of disconnection with it, a kind of panic. People cannot be alone anymore. This could have caused Ash to text while driving. The latter is indeed implied as Ash takes out his phone upon entering the car. When Martha starts using the software on her phone, she goes into the state of always “on”. When she drops her phone, she freaks out and starts crying, feeling like she is losing Ash all over again. This panic reflects Turkle’s observations. Turkle recounts people saying the loss of a cell phone can “feel like a death” (2011, p. 16-17). When Martha is “on”, she also avoids real-life contact in preference of Ash’s simulation, the substitution Turkle warns us about. Easier, mediated relationships on networked devices, robots and A.I. are the preferred connection of choice. This motive runs through the episode as Martha ignores her sister Naomi’s calls. Naomi functions as the personification of Martha’s real-life relationships. When Naomi first calls Martha, Martha lies to her sister that everything is fine, implores her not to come and cuts her off quick. She goes back to her laptop to talk to textual Ash. This happens again when Martha goes on a hike while she talks to oral Ash. Naomi calls Martha but she doesn’t answer the phone, preferring to talk to oral Ash.” It is a representation of the different aspects of into society that are quickly falling apart.

It is in the simulation of Ash that Martha finds peace and comforts. Humans should however be worried about what technology can do. The question that many would raise regarding the simulation of individuals is whether they are ready to look at the different ways of engaging the topic is if the same may not lead to problems. Say a person wants to get rid of a person but would want their representation in real life. It would be easier to deal with the real person once and for all then simulate the same person for different purposes that the person might have. Martha supports this by the act, “Yeah well, you aren’t you, are you? … You’re just a few ripples of you. There’s no history to you. You’re just a performance of stuff that he performed without thinking and it’s not enough.” – Martha, segment 1.8

The problem of mediated relationships is rampant in the film anthology. In modern day relationships, one can easily find different people to relate with based on the information that they have gotten from social media. It is however important to consider the various ways in which social media technology is structured (Huber, 2017). Today, there are different algorithms that must be identified before a person may find a way to deal with another. Most friends one acquires on a website such as Facebook depend on the type of information the person keys in. it is therefore perfectly possible for one to give wrongful information relating to a particular subject of discussion. It is in the same manner that hackers, bullies, cons and internet trolls make their moves from.

Moving on, SP is another episode that highlights the social nature of technology and internet as enacted in the ‘Black Mirror.’ During a conversation between Yorkie and Kelly, the above is replicated.

Yorkie: “You don’t know who I am. You don’t know what this means.”

Kelly: “This means fun. Or it should. And this… This is not fun, okay?”

Yorkie: “So you don’t feel bad? Maybe you should feel bad. Or at least feel something.”

– Yorkie and Kelly, segment 2.5

In the beginning, we see Kelly being the person that SP represents. She is not keen on developing any relationship with any individual. After she has met and made love to Yorkie, she begins living in denial of the fact that she feels a connection with him. She flees from him often cooking up excuses not to be together with the person with whom she shares a connection (Turkle, 2011). Turkle adds that “Our networked life allows us to hide from each other, even as we are tethered to each other. People want to be connected but from a distance, in amounts they can control how they are presenting themselves. Kelly wants to have connections, but not too close.” True to the words of Turkle, it is utterly difficult to develop any meaningful relationships after the advent of social media. In the characterization of Wes, the lack of human emotion is explicated. Wes is in desperate search of something more than sex. He is searching for true connection with a person with whom he would like to spend life with. In the current dispensation of social media likes, people are in denial of the very basic foundations of what life has brought us to. Emotions such as love are today frowned upon and named as ‘stupid.’ It is the mistake many of the millennials are making and will be the cause of the doom that will befall humanity if humans are not willing to sit down and reflect of the basic constructs of life.


The pain of social media use and addiction has been reported to boarder on disease. As general literature suggests, there are different ways in which different people have the chance to carry out different activities that they re required to carry out. For instance, human connection and communications were ordinarily personal. With the development of technology and other implements that come with it, it is no longer business as usual. This paper has evaluated different episodes in the 2011 anthology series “Black Mirror” to come up with a succinct discussion about the dangers of technology and social media. Indeed, the paper evaluated literature on the subject with the view of bring to the fore different issues that are happening in modern day society. The importance of the discussion on the various topics for discussion relate on the manner of different ways in which social media is disintegrating the grund norm of society.

In the series Black Mirror, no one seems to be concerned about the impending effects that the same has on the life of people who were previously living together. To identify the main points of discussion, it is important to look at the ways in which the series is structured. The series is an anthology which means that it has stand alone episodes. Through the use of different characters and technology, it can be mentioned that the purpose the writer had was to reflect on the different ways in which social media is creating a wall between the friendships that different people used to have in the world we are living in. Through Artificial intelligence, it is now possible to feel what another person is feeling and that may be a cause for alarm. In summary, social media is creating a rife between different people in the society as exemplified by the different episodes that the series presents. When one has the ability to upload their consciousness to the cloud, it is not different from removing oneself from natural life as we know it and becoming a machine. Many of those concerned do not seem to be worried by the concern but it will only be a matter of time before it becomes a reality. Humans are growing further apart by each passing day.





Blazer, A. (2017). That’s a bit creepy, what you’re doing”: Black Mirror and the Perverse Gaze, presented at SouthEast Coastal Conference on Languages & Literatures (SECCLL), Savannah, GA, USA, 2017. Retrieved from:

Brooker, C. (Writer), & Harris, O. (Director). (2013). Be Right Back [Television series episode]. In C. Brooker (Producer), Black Mirror. London: Channel 4.

Brooker, C. (Writer), & Harris, O. (Director). (2016). San Junipero [Television series episode]. In C. Brooker (Producer), Black Mirror. Los Gatos, CA: Netflix.

Chambers, A. C. (2017, March 2). Why near-future science fiction like Westworld and Black Mirror is so terrifying: They allow for discussions of the implications of believable changes. Retrieved from

Huber, C. R. (2017). A Dark Reflection of Society: Analyzing Cultural Representations of State Control in Black Mirror.Matheson, T. J. (1992). Marcuse, Ellul, and the science-fiction film: negative responses to technology. Science Fiction Studies, 326-339.

Pew Research Center (2017, January 12). Social media fact sheet. Retrieved from

Rosewarne, L. (2016). Intimacy on the Internet: Media representations of online connections. Routledge.

Salem, B. (2015). Black mirror: technostruggles, capitalism, and media culture in the United Kingdom (Master’s thesis, University of Lancaster, UK). Retrieved from


Tucker, A. (2014). Interfacing with the Internet in Popular Cinema. Springer.

Ungureanu, C. (2015). Aestheticization of politics and ambivalence of self-sacrifice in Charlie Brooker’s The National Anthem. Journal of European Studies45(1), 21-30.

Wortham, J. (2015, January 30). ‘Black Mirror’ and the horrors and delights of technology. Retrieved from



Violent Crime In the United States


Relating Violent Crime in America to the Social Learning Criminological Theory


In criminology, there are different ways in which different individuals serve their purpose in the criminal justice system. For instance, magistrates and judges usually look at the law, facts and evidence to ensure that their decisions are in accordance to the tenets of justice. The selected occupation I have chosen is that of a law enforcement officer. The strict definition of a law enforcement officer refers to the person with the legal mandate to enforce the law for the jurisdiction they are serving (Police Executive Research Forum, 2014). For instance, a law enforcement officer may be a police officer mandated to carry out operations on drug trafficking individuals in a particular place. The role of the law enforcement officer is to therefore look at ways in which he will investigate suspects, apprehend them and prepare the necessary court documents for charging the suspect.

Definition of Theory

The theory of choice for this paper will be the social learning theory. Simply defined, the social learning theory refers to a crime trait that is learned from the criminal leaning criminal traits from the people they spend time with. The social learning theory avers that where an individual grows up in a lower socio-economic background with heightened criminal activity, then the child’s company of the adults in the area will slowly transform him into a criminal (Gagnon, 2018). For instance, a male adolescent growing up in the projects with the company of criminals may inevitably dispose him to have criminal tendencies. In addition, the lack of basic supplies may also be a motivation to the criminal tendencies the individual will be showing.

Identify Victims and Offenders affected by the concepts of the theory.

Characteristics of crime Victims

The victims are usually acquaintances of the criminal. They may be neighbors or people the criminal has spend time with who become the targets. In most instances, victims of a crime are neighbors and the people that the victim has learnt to understand to be her close associates. In the case of rape, the people that carry out the illegalities are usually the known contacts of the individual. For instance, it is important to mention that the person perpetrating the crime of rape will a work mate, an acquaintance they were drinking with or even a family member. It is therefore important to note the different character of a person in law enforcement because reports of such kind of crimes are rare and marred with secretive blackmail.

The victims are usually shocked by the sudden change of behavior in the aggressor. For instance, they may be in shock to come into terms with their neighbors robbing most instances, the victims do not believe that they have been robbed by the person that robbed them or stolen from them. Due to the incapacities created by the accused person, the victim may have had the belief that the perpetrator would not harm them. However, it is noteworthy to mention that there are different ways in which the perpetrator acts that traumatizes the victim. In an incident such as rape there are various actions a law enforcement officer will be responsible for. The collection of evidence is key in building the case for the complainant and the state for the successful prosecution of the case.

The physical effects of crime on the victims are usually mild. Depending on the aggressor, they may be fatal. In the first instance, criminal attacks on the victim may happen in a variety of ways. Where the incident is a simple pickpocketing, the victim may not even realize they have been robbed. In other instances, the incidence happens where the attacker is bearing a weapon. In such a case, the injuries to the victim may be mild if the aggressor uses it as such. In the case where there is a shooting incidence, it is important to consider the facts that will involve the victim. She may be dangerously harmed. In the worst-case scenarios where, criminal gangs are fighting for territorial control, it is murder that is committed.

The effect of criminal activity on society relates to the distaste of the aggressor. The society and the community the victim lives in influences the manner in which a crime victim will respond to a matter of concern or crime committed. If the victim distastes the aggressor based on the perceptions identified by their immediate environment, the mental condition of the individual is bound to deteriorate. The importance of psychological assessment is not to be avoided.


Characteristics of offenders

Typical offender characteristics include changing from the responsible individual they once were to become the criminal they have become. In the beginning, the offender may have kept the company of responsible individuals in the society. With time, they begin associating with social misfits who influence that they run their lives. In most instances, these offenders may have come from backgrounds in which their families may have abandoned them. In social understanding of the criminal tendencies of the people close to others, the motivation may be the lack of attention and direction from people that are higher than them. In families with absentee parents, the children may elect to go out to the hoodlums to learn street skills so they can get the recognition they are seeking.

Most of the offenders in the social learning theory are male. They range from the age of adolescence to their middle ages. They are mostly drop outs although some have a good background in education. In today’s criminal research field, criminal tendencies are changing with each passing crime (Besemer, Farrington, & Bijleveld, 2017). In the past, criminal activities used o be perpetrated by school drop outs who had no means to earn a living. Today however, organized crime has different professionals involved in the running of different types of crime. Cyber crime requires a lot of skill and intelligence that will ensure the crime goes untraceable. The importance of having skilled criminals is to avoid the hands of justice. As a law enforcement officer however, the important consideration will be to look at all the characteristics of criminal activity with an open eye to avoid unconjurable events in future.

Most criminals are males. The biological contribution to the affinity to crime is not scientific. However, statistics have continuously reported that males in the adolescent to middle ages are likely to be engaged in criminal activity more than other ages would. At this age, these youth are energetic. Coupled with the lack of a stable source of income and activity to enage in, crime is usually the next alternative in line.

Research examples of the Social Learning theory

There are various studies conducted in the criminology concerning the manner in which criminal activities and perpetrators operate. In the first instance, the criminal justice system is required to enable a benchmarking strategy to ensure that all members are properly guided on the progress of the fight against crime. Ridgeway & MacDonald (2014) argues for different ways in which the police department can strategize to ensure that they are learning the various characteristics of criminal theory. Through the social learning theory, it is identified that the character traits of the environment that one grows in will automatically influence the manner in which they will relate to society. Through social learning, adolescent males to the middle ages usually learn from those above them. If they spend a lot to time with different individuals who commit crime for a living, then these adolescents are most likely to start dealing in drugs and the criminal activities that the seniors are carrying out.


Victimization is an important ideology to discuss in this section. In criminal gangs, victimization is usually used in criminal gangs to extend the loyalty and the operations of the gang (Gagnon 2018). For instance, one new member of the gang may be tired of the criminal activities that they are engaging in. in his bid to quit, one of the gang members realizes after which he informs the leader of the gang of the dire consequences of his actions once out. In the ensuing encounters, the victimization will lead the individual to commit criminal activity to save himself. In addition, such criminal activity is bound to dangerous as it involves the directions of one sadistic soul.

Rosenfeld, (2018) identified different criminal trends that must be identified to ensure that they can ably respond to the concerns of the public. The social learning theory explained states that criminals are bound to learn from the criminal tendencies of the people they are living with. In identifying the different stages of criminal activity in a certain environment, the law enforcement officer is not required to go for the obvious traits of criminal tendencies. The law enforcement officer should look at new developments in criminal activity. The manner in which cybercrime is conducted is discreet but the risks are weighty. To identify such activities, law enforcement officers need to create a plan through which they can identify the crimes before moving to solving them in the long run.

Gun violence in the United is at an all time high. There have been different cases of shooting in different states in the United States which have necessitated criminological evaluation on their occurrence and solution.

One example of a practical application of the social learning theory can be inferred from the data focusing on crime rates in lower socio-economic areas. The social learning theory proves that in a situation where the social structure does not absolutely prohibit criminal activity, then most of that society will have the criminal tendencies innate in them. In application to a law enforcement officer, the social learning theory prematurely concludes the criminal tendencies of different people as situated in a particular area. As such many innocent victims are charged with wrongful crimes and sentences. Occupational detractors include criminal attacks on officers especially in areas with inadequate security measures in place.

To overcome drawbacks, the law enforcement professional must have back up while on operations (Ridgeway & McDonald, 2014). In addition, sanitization of crime prone areas and public education is important to reduce the happenstance of criminal risks. Law enforcement officers need to look at he development of crime and how it is organized in the new digital dispensation. Law enforcement officers must be in touch with what is happening on the ground to ensure that they have all the necessary intelligence they require to carry out their job responsibilities.


I would use the social learning theory in my law enforcement career for various reasons. The reason for the application is to understand the criminal tendencies in particular areas of my jurisdiction. For instance, understanding particular crime hotspots will be instrumental in rooting out criminal characters from society into correctional facilities.





Besemer, S., Farrington, D. P., & Bijleveld, C. C. (2017). Labeling and intergenerational transmission of crime: The interaction between criminal justice intervention and a convicted parent. PloS one12(3), e0172419.

Gagnon, A. (2018). Extending social learning theory to explain victimization among gang and ex-gang offenders. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, 0306624X18763761.

Monod, S. W. (2017). Portraying those we condemn with care: Extending the ethics of representation. Critical Criminology25(3), 343-356.

Police Executive Research Forum, (author.). (2014). Future trends in policing. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, US Department of Justice.

Ridgeway, G., & MacDonald, J. M. (2014). A method for internal benchmarking of criminal justice system performance. Crime & Delinquency60(1), 145-162.Salisbury, E. J. (2013). Social learning and crime. The Oxford handbook of criminological theory, 116-130.












Reducing Asthma related Deaths in the United States


Institutional Affiliation








Table of Contents

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………. 3

Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………4


Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………… 12

Recommendations ………………………………………………………………………… 14

References ………………………………………………………………………………….17














The rate of asthma related deaths in minority groups in the United States has been on an upward trend and raised concerns of it being an epidemic. In minority such as the Latino and the African-American population, the rates of infection and deaths is three times that of the white community. The rates in children has been marked at 9.5% with adult rates reaching 12%. Healthcare remains one of the most controversial topic issues to deal with in the American public. This proposal seeks to highlight the national concern on the prevalence of Asthma in the American public. The proposal will begin by a brief background of asthma prevalence in the American public, the denture the same leaves on the national expenditure, the need to keep most Americans safe and have a better living environment. The proposal will feature a background study which will then be followed by a discussion of the effect the disease has had on the national budget. Closer home the proposal will look at the prevalence rates in California and the rates in children. With a budget of $100,000, it is important to limit the proposal to a particular area of California (properly identified) and offer solution to individual solutions to a number of people. A cost analysis will precede the implementation of the project. The sociological model calls for collection of information in different areas. The proposal will evaluate different literature on how different countries and communities have implemented their practices. The appeal is that you fund the project so as the journey to having an asthma free America is realized.






In the year 2015, almost over 2.5 million non-Hispanic blacks reported that they were living with asthma. The rate of asthma prevalence in African- American women was reported to be 20 percent more likely to be more than that of non-Hispanic whites. African Americans have been reported to be three times more likely to die from asthma related complications than whites in 2014. African American children were reported o be ten times more likely to die from asthma related complications in the United States in 2015 than white children and other non-black communities. Hospital admission rates for African American children are four times more than that of their non-black counterparts. There are many causes of asthma although the major reason is yet to be scientifically proven. However, studies have shown that children who were exposed to second hand tobacco had an increased risk of contamination. They were likely to contract diseases such as bronchitis owing the fact that they have lower respiratory tract infections. For children living below the poverty level, high levels of blood cotinine were identified and were a risk for their exposure to asthma.








Table 1: Rate of asthma prevalence

Current asthma prevalence percentage, adults ages 18 and over, 2015
  Non-Hispanic Black Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic Black/Non-Hispanic White Ratio
Men 6.0 5.6 1.1
Women 11.7 10.1 1.2
Both Sexes 9.1 7.9 1.2

Source: CDC 2017. National Health Interview Survey Data 2015.


There are staggering facts on the problem that asthma has brought into the United States. For black communities, the problem causes identified are sometimes so frivolous that the lives lost could have been saved were the officials to take steps to remedy the situation. For those living below the poverty line, it was understood that the risk factors were numerous. As such, steps need to be taken to remedy the problem for the betterment of community healthcare. The solution to the problem in children is strict adherence to asthma medication at the required periods of time. In African American communities, parents are usually compromised by their beliefs and will generally be reluctant in adhering to asthma medication instructions for their children. For adults, the same beliefs have been reported to be the reason behind the high asthma related deaths in the United States. Coupled with poor literacy, the problem has been advanced by individualized cultural sensitivities that communication on addressing the issue is not possible.

The use of long-term control medications is also key in ensuring that disparities between the races is effected. In such a way, the burden of asthma is reduced. Through the consistent use of long-term control medication and other asthma related medications helps in the reduction of emergency care issues and deaths in the United States. The burden of childhood asthma properly identifies the general way in which minorities are affected. It is therefor important to include asthma education programs to ensure that they poor communities have adequate information on the treatment and care for people living with the disease. Identifying other environmental triggers calls for different ways in which asthma is to be dealt with. This proposal seeks to bring the prayer that education programs are created to advance the education of black and Latino communities in the United States. The education programs will run through a period of six months whereupon there will be an evaluation of the different impacts of the different methodologies of dealing with the problem at hand. The education programs in California will be conducted through radio, television, the internet and live door to door education programs that will be run through the enabling power of the funds requested.







In the Unite States, the prevalence of asthma is not only triple for the minority groups but also comes with higher asthma associated morbidity and deaths in the black community than in other races. Numerous factors including lower socio-economic status, levels of education, genetics, health maintenance behavior, obesity and the quality of air are attributed to the increased deaths in the communities. The complexity of the risk factors is yet to be understood by most members of the public and it is in the same stance that increased deaths have been reported. According to the American statistics on the levels of asthma related deaths in the United States, most of the problems identified are ones that could be easily avoided.

Asthma Facts and Figures

Asthma is a disease that affects the airways where a blockage occurs and air from the nose or mouth will have difficulty reaching the lungs. As a result, the individual will have problems breathing and they will also have allergies. Irritating things will often affect the individual and they will need to adapt to new ways of dealing with the disease. In the United States, asthma classified among the costliest diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) every one in thirteen people is infected with asthma (CDC, 2018). At the beginning of 2018, more that 25 million Americans are suffering from asthma. For adults, this translates into 8.3 with a similar margin for children. Since the early 1980s, asthma has been on the increase and affects virtually every racial group in the United States.

Some of the characteristic’s asthma has taken in THE United States today include;

  1. Asthma is reported to be more common in American women than men
  2. African Americans in the United today die at a higher rate than other races in cases related to asthma.
  3. In 2015, more that 11 million people admitted to have experienced asthma periods.
  4. In American children, asthma is the most chronic disease.
  5. Boys are more affected by asthma in the United States than girls.
  6. Asthma is more common in children than adults.
  7. Asthma is more common in boys than girls.
  8. More than 6 million children under the age of majority are suffering from asthma.

Asthma was also reported as the major reason why children did not attend school in 2015 than other health related issue in the United States. On a daily basis, close to 10 Americans die from asthma related complications. In 2015 alone, 3,615 people died from the disease. Form research and policy, it has been indicated that most of the deaths occasioned by asthma could have been prevented. Through proper care and treatment, most Americans could avoid the many risks that are brought about by asthma. The sad fact about the deaths caused by asthma is that different people will have different ways in which they respond t asthma. As a disease, asthma can be controlled. For the African American community, some areas have low to poor quality education and as such will not be in a position to tell when a child starts to show the symptoms of asthma. Importantly, it must be mentioned that there are different factors that affect different people living with asthma. For instance, a person living with asthma is required to have adequate measures to ensure that all things they carry out do not affect the lives they are leading. Most of the deaths occasioned by asthma may be due to the lack of information. If a family were to be aware of the medical condition of different people in the family, there would be better control and maintenance of the disease.

In African American communities, the cultural preferences do not allow for a child or family member to get medical attention once they notice a mishap with the body. It is important that education reaches the different areas of low socio-economic status for them to be a fast-responsive mechanism in cases of asthma attack periods. For instance, asthma attacks can be reduced through the education programs developed for the community in accordance to the way of life that these people choose to live. There have been reported cases an individual experience an asthma attack and du to the lack of available personnel to care for the individual, the attack leads to their death. Community health programs in this proposal argue that all Americans with cancer must have adequate ways of ensuring that they are around people who might help them in case any problem arises. In the present setting, most family members lack the knowledge and skills to take care of asthma patients. In the public media, there are rare occasions where asthma is identified as one of the leading causes of death for Americans.


The Costs of Asthma

From the year 2008 to the 2013, the US exchequer had spent close to 82 billion in asthma related expenditure. Medical costs and the loss of work and school have also been reported to be high in different areas in the United States. A continued loss of working time and loss of life is not healthy for the growth of the United States. At a glance, the United States has lost close to $3 billion in lost school and work days. In addition, $29 billion has been lost due to deaths caused by asthma.$3 billion in losses due to missed work and school days. $50.3 billion has been spent on the treatment of asthma and related diseases. Every individual in the United States has an increased medical cost by $3,266 annually. There are different reasons why asthma is a concern that requires heightened attention. An example is where 13.8 million children miss school due to complications brought about by asthma.

The real costs associated with the treatment of asthma are increasing by the year. In the 1980s, asthma was not much of a threat as it is today. An example of 13.8 million children missing school is alarming. There should be ways in which different individuals look at ways in which they can properly identify the problems caused and the manner in which they are solved. Children are the future of America. Most of their education is usually affected by different ways in which they live their lives. Because of environmental factors, some children have the high likelihood of being affected by asthma. The air quality in lower income areas for instance is a threat to the health of the child. Where a child lives within an environment where smoking is tolerated, the kid will be at a higher risk of being infected. In the first instance, the loss of class time will not be noted. However, their counterparts in upper socio-economic areas will have the adequate environment for them to live a risk-free lifestyle. As a result, they are bound to attend all school sessions which increases their likelihood of better performance and educational advancement.

On the other side, children from lower socio-economic background will miss school hours which will mean that thy are bound to fail in examinations owing to the fact that they did not properly cover the important topics in the school curriculum syllabus. It is important to ensure that different individuals find a way to ensure that the loss of hours is not translated. With enough funding to educate the public on how small events in a child’ life affects them, then the responsive mechanisms will stand in to show the different areas of engagement that the individual requires. A discussion about the initial cost compared to the long-term costs that asthma bring in to America. In future, the government has to spend billions of dollars in ensuring that different needs are met. Due to the many challenges that many economies have today, it is important to mention the different factors that different people have in a group or setting. A reduction f this risk will properly input more funds in the hands of many Americans which means that they will have the opportunity to identify with the needs of most part of the population.


Asthma frequency list and deaths- causes

  1. Poverty – most of the families where members are affected by asthma are poor. Due to poverty, these individuals are not able to properly access education on asthma, its prevention, characteristics and symptoms, and the way that different people are focusing on the subject. Most of these individuals do not understand the right channels to follow to ensure that their family members have been properly attended to. It is important to look at the different ways in which families have been affected by asthma. For parents with inadequate knowledge of the disease, the result will be death if no proper care is administered.
  2. City air quality – Most of the families affected by high rates and risk of asthma live in cities. Due to a lack of sufficient clean air for breathing, these individuals inhale toxic air on the daily which increases their risk of asthma. In the long run, the population being affected by asthma will increase.
  3. Education – education plays a pivotal role in the understanding of the risk asthma poses to the United States. Education guides the individual on how they can approach the issue and make sure that the issue is properly taken care of. Among patients, there appears to be a lack of proper education on how to use the breathing equipment given to patients. With lack of knowledge to use an apparatus that will save one’s lives; the rates of death will be increased.
  4. Poor health care – poor healthcare is a result of the incapacities in dieting and the choice of life. Most black populations are affected by drug problems. Individuals affected by drugs will often disregard their personal hygiene and feeding. Due to the lack of taking medicine at the required time, it is important to lay claim on the reality of findings mentioning the different ways of engagement with the disease.
  5. Puerto Ricans ae the most affected with asthma. The reasoning behind this reality s that most of them are not engaged in the day to day running of American affairs. For instance, their business and culture allow them to smoke and engage in unhealthy activities so that they are able to fend for themselves. The solution to this problem is in public education. Through allocating money for public education, community health programs will have the general insistence on treatment rather than the death by the disease. Learning how to take asthma medication and living with and infected individual will highly the care of the disease.
  6. African American children have the highest rates of asthma infection in the United States. The African American culture in the projects attracts asthma attacks. Most those who live in the project drop out of school to deal in drugs and that is the reason why most of them are affected by the disease. The genetic composition of the African American community will definitely have a bearing on their risk attacks.




Commitments to treat Asthma in the past

In the past, there have various concerted efforts in fighting asthma. The first case where asthma has been treated is through case management by data by parent or guardian of the individual affected by the disease. There should be different reports on the prevalence and the death rates associated by asthma. Importantly, there should be a way in which different people look at the manner in which the disease affects the African American population. Through hospital administration data, there should be ways in which government learns about the different character traits of those most affected by asthma. The CAI model was adopted in many different cities and states which makes every effort trackable. The proposal is to look at the solutions that have been preferred in the past and capitalize on their strengths and avoid weaknesses at all costs.

An understanding of the different ways in which patient risks are responded to is important. For instance, it is possible that through public education, there will be different ways in which many of the communities will learn how to care about patient and administer treatment at home. In this way, the risk of constantly having to worry will be reduced.  There have been multi-level efforts to deal with different stages of asthma and the risks that are associated with the disease. For instance, it is important to mention that there are different risks that are associated with treating a disease without the requisite personnel. The proposal argues for a training model where members of the public are educated on the various ways in which they can identify their issues and attend to them. In so doing, the community will be in a better place to understand the various ways of dealing with asthma.



Asthma is a chronic disease to children and affects all racial groups in the United States. However, the African American population is at a higher risk of having asthma than any other race in the country. The Latino community is also highly affected by the asthma problem. On a national average, asthma affects close to 10 percent of the population. As discussed in the paper, there are different causes of asthma. The genetics of an individual may be the cause of that person suffering from asthma. Another reason is the manner in which the person carries their life. Education and air quality have also been discussed as some of the main causes of asthma. As discussed, most of the black and Latino community are affected by the disease and it is due to the above that concerns have been raised on how to remedy the situation. Importantly, the paper has dealt with public education as one way to ensure that the high death rates of asthma are controlled. In industry practice and according to the available data on the different subjects to be discussed concerning asthma, the important consideration has been the purification of the education system, cultural beliefs and the manner in which different communities are concerned.









The major recommendation that will help fight asthma prevalence and death is related to economic empowerment and the manner in which different individuals look at ways to g around the problem. The first solution is to lobby the government to provide more funding to areas that affected by asthma. Through funding, there will be an opportunity to conduct public education in local communities insisting on the value of adequate information while dealing and caring for a person affected by asthma.







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