Discussions

Module Discussions and Assignment

Name

Institutional Affiliation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Describe how a disaster can affect an organization or business

When disasters strike an organization, it is normal to experience devastating consequences both internally and externally. A business must assess all possible risks to the business and ensure to put in place proper defense mechanisms. Disasters in a business can be natural which matters include hurricanes, earthquakes, floods and such kind of natural calamities that hit a particular business. In a business, losses may include the departure of an efficient manager, breach of business contracts with partners and unexpected, unfair business undercutting. For larger organizations more accessible resources make it easier for recovery unlike in small businesses where operations may not be restored.

The second risk that an organization faces is on investment. A business will not be able to have the financial ability to invest in the business. Recovery process will therefore, be delayed. In some disasters, the business may not operate due to inaccessibility of the physical resources. The cure to this problem will be in the business ensuring that everything is doing well.

Recruits are another challenge the business faces from disasters. If a company has many different workers, it will be easier to deploy the for recovery services than when they are few. With the lack of resources, it will not be possible to recruit more workers and get the organization back to its feet. In summary, the business faces the possibility of risks and it is upon the very business to always ensure they assess risks, prepare for the disaster and have a plan with which they recover fast.

 

 

 

Describe one characteristic of a disaster recovery team member

Disaster recovery systems in different organizations around the globe have different ways in which they handle the different crisis that are faced with. The management of an organization needs to have different models of engagement where there will be good positioning for action. The disaster management recovery team leader should always have different characteristics that will either determine the viability of its recovery or the lack of. In the discussion below different characteristics of a disaster recovery team member will be discussed.

The first characteristic of the team member in a disaster recovery team is to be proactive in activation. To be proactive requires every team member to be dedicated to their job in the sense that they are able to initiate recovery efforts as and when they occur (De Jong, Kurt and Nicole, 1134). The team member must get all the support he requires from the senior management and team leaders for better work compliance.

Another characteristic that a disaster recovery team member is that they always understand their role well. If every team member understands the specifics of the jobs they are to carry out, then it is better to understand that disaster recovery missions will bear fruits. If a person understand their role in the different actualization of their goals, they will be rewarded with positive results. To finish with, disaster recovery team members are always in regular training where they get refresher courses in the different specialties that they are skilled in. in such a way there would be no problem of recovering from disaster in an organization.

 

 

 

Name a utility required by a data center. What events might occur to interrupt this utility?

One utility required by any data center is Nagios. Nagios is a capacity planning utility and infrastructural restructuring tool for the organization. Through an SMS platform, the utility in a data center ensures that all messages or emails are done in a manner that respects the very definition of an efficient operation system. Through different networking components, the very manner in which the utility sends alerts is what disaster recovery will call genius. In a complex IT environment for instance, it is important to look at the very ways in which different disasters can be responded to. If the organization does not have the necessary utility data centers, then any loss that risks the organization can be devastating to the organization.

Nagios is available for free download and the user only has to part with little fees for maintenance and support for use. One event that might occur top interrupt this utility is when there is no script input at the endpoint system. Should it happen that the script is incorrectly coded or malfunctions, then the utility will not be able to run efficiently. Secondly, where an organization does not maintain the utility, it will be interrupted. This will happen when a virus hits the system utility and it is on low maintenance. According to an article by Picks by IT Pros, power black outs and natural calamities may also affect the Nagios utility.

 

Discuss one aspect of Tier 1, 2, or 3.

Tier 1: Data backup with no hot site

Different organizations with Tier 1 continuity usually depend on the various ways in which continuity solutions interchange among each other. For instance, where old tapes are used, the tapes will be dispatched to different locations where storage is possible. If the duplicating process is involved, then it follows that a Solid File System is used (Software Aspects, Online). This capacity based utility ensures that all data is saved on one disk and there would be no problem where data will be corrupted. Since the data that is used is important to the working of the various discussions, then it is possible that everything will be done in an okay manner. Backups, keywords and passwords should at all time be treated with the level of security that the system in question risks. Data restoration as an option should also be considered as a channel of disaster recovery.

The replication of data has various advantages on an organization’s system. When data is replicated, there will be no need for internal restructuring and this will cause the system to be secured. Single record characteristics used for the above mechanism will always be made in a manner that takes care of the organization’s data. Under the So1FS frame work, it is now possible to make access to the organization’s data folders through different applications that might be done on different devices. It is in this way that Tier 1 data must be protected at all costs.

 

 

Discuss some recovery site options.

Disaster recovery in any organization must have different representations of how they would like to come up later on as a business. There are different site options that different organizations can use. These include; mobile sites, warm sites, cold sites and hot sites. There are specific roles that different these sites play. For hot sites, it is important to note that they play a part and parcel of the primary object of IT operation in the organization. All applications and data are usually duplicated in the hot site to ensure that the organization does not lose their basic data to disasters. The inclusion of software also ensure that the data is safe from intrusion in the different facets in which it operates.

The second site option that exists in disaster recovery is warm sites. This is a form a hot site but it lacks the ability to replicate the data and the system software of the primary system. One of the functions of a warm site is to give access to space for the different channels of operation in the organization (Singha, 2012). They also offer utilities and installation of back abilities. The major objective the warm sites have is to ensure that equipment important for disaster recovery. When a company has a downtime, warm sites will ensure that the system is not lost on the first and the second attempts.

The third site options include the generous application of cold sites. By definition, cold sites ensure that there is an activated plan in case there is any eventuality. For the use of cold sites, the organization will be making arrangements to set back on ground should any disaster appear. In most instances, the cold sites are usually ready to operate within a week.

 

Module 6 Discussion Question

Discuss documents that need to be included in recovery documentation

Recovery documentation should first include the instructions on how to recover in case there is a disaster. When the disaster recovery team has a strong instruction plan on what role the different individuals will play, it means that the road to recovery will be easier. The one documentation to be included in recovery documentation is the internal contact information. It will be easier to trace every member of staff that was working prior to the disaster. Additionally, the documentation should include external contact information. Having external contact information ensures that the organization will be ready to reach out to their different partners for business continuity.

Crucial documentation of the copies of contracts for the first, second and third business partner should be included. When this information is available, it will be possible to try recover any unpaid debts and ascertain any outstanding debts expenditure or contractual obligations (Omar, David, and Roosevelt, 127). Every disaster recovery plan will look at how the business is going to move forward from the unfortunate disasters that had hit. The chain of command in the organization is another important part of the disaster recovery plan. For instance, it will be prudent to ensure that the list of documentation has a list of all the responsible members in setting the ball rolling for the organization.

 

  1. Identify emergency situations that may occur during a recovery.

Every disaster has its own devastations that need to be addressed. Disaster recovery teams should be used to ensure that the recovery processed is assured. When the disaster recovery is ongoing, it is important to ensure that all resources for recovery will be advanced for the betterment of future operations. There is a risk for every recovery process to experience natural calamities. The supply of power in a building where the business is located may be affected which means that the recovery process will have to stall. In addition, it is important to consider accident. Accidents may occur in disaster recovery processes by deed of ensuring that all the supplies for recovery are destroyed, the company must ensure that they put in place all possible mechanisms to ensure that accident do not destroy all supplies needed for recovery from disasters.

One example of an emergency situation is where there is a storm or a hurricane. In the development of the DR process, the management of the company must ensure that they have other safe havens to keep their physical resources. Human resources should readily be available where different positions are filled with two people. In case one person absconds duty, the other worker will readily fill in the position. There are temporary emergencies such as compliance needs that different people have to handle before anything in the organization goes awry. In the discovery recovery efforts, the organization should make sure that they are having events that will put control measures and ensure smooth operations proceed.

Describe one to two different kinds of tests that can be performed for the Disaster

Recovery Plan.

One of the most crucial activities in disaster recovery is the conduction of tests. A successful disaster recovery plan must ensure that all the required factors have the adequate resources to conduct texts to ascertain the effectiveness of the plan. Coordination is an important undertaking that the members have to do to ensure that each department is working well. To conduct proper testing, a detailed checklist must be prepared to check on all the affected parts of the organization system. Losses must be evaluated on the good ideal of efficiency and capacity. All the activities to be identified in the most workable proportion must well identified for the better ranking of the different inceptions that will exist.

In the case of floods, all essential checklists must be detailed to the point in which the organization team members will be able to identify the different risks and how to deal with them. Another example stems from the fact that all the necessary departments have their ways in which they can conduct test. For the instance of the prevalence of storms the disaster recovery team members will need to contact the weather department to ensure that all premises are properly guarded and there will be no instances of failure because of storms. In summary the test from the weather and building department ensures that all players are in a position to recover in case of any disaster.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assignment

Introduction to Disaster Recovery

Characteristics of Disaster Discovery Team Member

Disaster recovery systems in different organizations around the globe have different ways in which they handle the different crisis that are faced with. The management of an organization needs to have different models of engagement where there will be good positioning for action. The disaster management recovery team leader should always have different characteristics that will either determine the viability of its recovery or the lack of. In the discussion below different characteristics of a disaster recovery team member will be discussed. The team members must at all times make sure that everything is working out as planned.

The first characteristic of the team member in a disaster recovery team is to be proactive in activation. To be proactive requires every team member to be dedicated to their job in the sense that they are able to initiate recovery efforts as and when they occur (De Jong, Kurt and Nicole, 1134). The team member must get all the support he requires from the senior management and team leaders for better work compliance.

Another characteristic that a disaster recovery team member is that they always understand their role well. If every team member understands the specifics of the jobs they are to carry out, then it is better to understand that disaster recovery missions will bear fruits. If a person understand their role in the different actualization of their goals, they will be rewarded with positive results. To finish with, disaster recovery team members are always in regular training where they get refresher courses in the different specialties that they are skilled in. in such a way there would be no problem of recovering from disaster in an organization.

Discuss documents that need to be included in recovery documentation

Recovery documentation should first include the instructions on how to recover in case there is a disaster. When the disaster recovery team has a strong instruction plan on what role the different individuals will play, it means that the road to recovery will be easier. The one documentation to be included in recovery documentation is the internal contact information. It will be easier to trace every member of staff that was working prior to the disaster. Additionally, the documentation should include external contact information. Having external contact information ensures that the organization will be ready to reach out to their different partners for business continuity.

Crucial documentation of the copies of contracts for the first, second and third business partner should be included. When this information is available, it will be possible to try recover any unpaid debts and ascertain any outstanding debts expenditure or contractual obligations (Omar, David, and Roosevelt, 127). Every disaster recovery plan will look at how the business is going to move forward from the unfortunate disasters that had hit. The chain of command in the organization is another important part of the disaster recovery plan. For instance, it will be prudent to ensure that the list of documentation has a list of all the responsible members in setting the ball rolling for the organization.

 

  1. Identify emergency situations that may occur during a recovery.

Every disaster has its own devastations that need to be addressed. Disaster recovery teams should be used to ensure that the recovery processed is assured. When the disaster recovery is ongoing, it is important to ensure that all resources for recovery will be advanced for the betterment of future operations. There is a risk for every recovery process to experience natural calamities. The supply of power in a building where the business is located may be affected which means that the recovery process will have to stall. In addition, it is important to consider accident. Accidents may occur in disaster recovery processes by deed of ensuring that all the supplies for recovery are destroyed, the company must ensure that they put in place all possible mechanisms to ensure that accident do not destroy all supplies needed for recovery from disasters.

One example of an emergency situation is where there is a storm or a hurricane. In the development of the DR process, the management of the company must ensure that they have other safe havens to keep their physical resources. Human resources should readily be available where different positions are filled with two people. In case one person absconds duty, the other worker will readily fill in the position. There are temporary emergencies such as compliance needs that different people have to handle before anything in the organization goes awry. In the discovery recovery efforts, the organization should make sure that they are having events that will put control measures and ensure smooth operations proceed.

Describe one to two different kinds of tests that can be performed for the Disaster

Recovery Plan.

One of the most crucial activities in disaster recovery is the conduction of tests. A successful disaster recovery plan must ensure that all the required factors have the adequate resources to conduct texts to ascertain the effectiveness of the plan. Coordination is an important undertaking that the members have to do to ensure that each department is working well. To conduct proper testing, a detailed checklist must be prepared to check on all the affected parts of the organization system. Losses must be evaluated on the good ideal of efficiency and capacity. All the activities to be identified in the most workable proportion must well identified for the better ranking of the different inceptions that will exist.

In the case of floods, all essential checklists must be detailed to the point in which the organization team members will be able to identify the different risks and how to deal with them. Another example stems from the fact that all the necessary departments have their ways in which they can conduct test. For the instance of the prevalence of storms the disaster recovery team members will need to contact the weather department to ensure that all premises are properly guarded and there will be no instances of failure because of storms. In summary the test from the weather and building department ensures that all players are in a position to recover in case of any disaster.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

De Jong, A., Kurt T. D, & Nicole G. (2016). Trust and team performance: A meta-analysis of main effects, moderators, and covariates. Journal of Applied Psychology101.8 at pp. 1134.

Must-have data center utilities: Picks by IT pros. (2017). Retrieved from computerworld: http://www.computerworld.com/article/2509180/data-center/must-have-data-center-utilities–picks-by-it-pros.html?page=2

Omar, A, David A, & Roosevelt Mason. (2011). Information technology disaster recovery plan: Case study. Academy of Strategic Management Journal 10.2 at pp. 127.

Singha, R. (2012). A multi-site disaster recovery solution based on ip storage networking. International Conference on Information and Computer Networks. Vol. 27. 2012.

Vitez, O. (2016). The effects of disaster on large vs. Small businesses. Small Business Chron. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/affects-disaster-large-vs-small-businesses-881.html

Wallace, Michael and Weber, Lawrence. The Disaster Recovery Handbook: A Step-by-Step Plan to Ensure Business Continuity and Protect Vital Operations, Facilities, and Assets. (2011). American Management Association, NY. ISBN: 978-0-8144-1613-6.

Wells, April; Walker, Timothy; Walker, Charlyne; Abarca, David. Disaster Recovery Principles and Practices. (2007). Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN: 978-0-13-171127-3. http://campbellsville.bncollege.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/BNCBHomePage?storeId=42563 &catalogId=10001&langId=-1

 

 

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Disaster Recovery

Name

Professor

Course

Date

1.1 and 2.2 , 3.1,and 4.1 and ,5.3 and ,6.2 and ,7.1 and ,8.2.

Assignment 1.1

The company I have chosen for this assignment is called Bitweb Solutions. Bitweb Solutions is a fictitious American company that deals with the provisions of products and services that are IT related. The company is located in Manhattan and sits in an 1800 square feet building in the northern part. The company provides solutions such as web hosting and maintenance, software development, hardware maintenance and other support services that a company will generally require. Some of the company’s strong points include parts where they serve large companies in installing proper software for the operations of different company systems (Luckey, 2009). Their encryption ability and capacity has been lauded by numerous companies and individuals that they have worked with. One of the advantages of ensuring that their business is always running is in the way that they have the different approaches to their business. For instance, it is important to mention that they provide follow up services and maintenance to ensure that disaster recovery processes are working.

The minimum services that must be maintained when a disaster hits the company is to ensure that the emergency restoration partner is contacted. In such a manner, it is important to ensure that everything is working according to plan. There are incidences where there are different variations of what services the company offers (Negash, 2008). For Bitweb solutions, it will be important to ensure that the safety records are restored. To secure safety record, the prequalified recovery assistant will help in the recovery of the records that the company has. All the important contacts, including those of the personnel will be undertaken. There are references that a business will always rely on. For the disaster recovery process, it is important to ensure that everything works according to plan.

2.2 Facilities Coordinator

Facilities coordinators are some of the best individuals to spearhead any disaster recovery mechanisms. For instance, it is important to ensure that there is a way in which the individual understands the inner workings of the company and all its system. The first characteristic of a facilities coordinator is that they should have strong problem solving skills. When the individual is properly prepared in training and maintenance of systems, they will be in a better position to have a way in which they will bring back the company back in the shortest time possible. Secondly, the facilities coordinator should have strong multi-tasking skills in a fast paced environment. After a disaster, it is always important to have the best person to drive the organization forward. For a company to go forward, it should be mentioned that the person should be a multitasker. A multi tasker should ensure that they have all the necessary equipment to ensure that all disaster recovery efforts are run in an efficient manner. According to Marks & CERP CEM (2005), it is important to mention the various ways in which different people are able to cope with the different conditions that they have to fulfill such as ensuring the security of the system is up and working.

Secondly, it is also important to consider the very ways in which the facilities coordinator utilizes time as a natural resource. Any facilities coordinator must properly evaluate their time to ensure that the objectives the company has set to recover must be met. In some instances, it is important to ensure that every person has the ability to carry out their activities within the recommended periods of time. If the system has to be restored, the facilities coordinator must work within the provided times to ensure that everything works out. Failure in doing so may result into additional losses that the company may not have foreseen.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Brown, Kelly L. “Assessing the educational needs of emergency management personnel.” Journal of Homeland Security Education 4 (2015): 1.

Drabek, Thomas E. Human system responses to disaster: An inventory of sociological findings. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

Luckey, Travis S. “Key stages of disaster recovery planning for time-critical business information technology systems.” (2009).

Marks, Craig A., and CERP CEM. “Professional competencies for the Master’s level emergency manager.” Federal Emergency Management Agency Higher Education Project (2005).

Negash, S. “Handbook on decision support systems 1: Business intelligence.” International handbooks on information systems (2008).

 

 

Alice Walker

“Everyday Use by Alice Walker” is an interesting tale that reveals the preservation of culture and heritage especially the African American Heritage. The message which is very clear concerns the heritage of the way African Americans used to live their lives. In conclusion that can be made about Walker, her beliefs are that an individual’s heritage remains part of them right from when they are born up to the time that they realize themselves and die. It is something dynamic and part of a culture that has an influence over a larger majority of people. It cannot be observed from a far-off distance. It is a heritage, something that can be practiced as tradition; each member feeling the part and the context of what they are.

There are two major approaches from heritage narrative that can be discerned from the story. One is the narrator who is an African- American woman. She is middle-aged. In her agreement with Walker, the preservation of their heritage comes to light. The quilts are the little twists in the story that make the heritage stick to the generations as they often come through (Cowart, 1996). Dee and Maggie are a true representation of support of the narrator’s view and it is in this way that they practice what their ancestors used to practice. There are various actions that the characters take which symbolize how grounded to the African American culture they are. Their physical attributes speak the same language and it is for this reason that Maggie’s skin is representative of her culture. For instance, she works like a man.

The quilts that are given to Maggie are pieced by the grandma and Dee herself. These are fragments of history and they represent the people through things like uniforms, shirts or scraps of dress. They carry a culture with them and they carry the heritage with them too.

 

 

References

Cowart, D. (1996). Heritage and Deracination in Walker’s” Everyday Use”. Studies in Short Fiction, 33(2), 171.

Walker, A. (1973). Everyday Use

 

Washington Consensus

Abstract

This paper seeks to evaluate the effects of the Washington Consensus policies on Nigeria’s economy. The consensus created by Washington-based institutions dealing in trade and policies are a set of 10 principles that guide the economy of particular countries is treated. This study strives to evaluate the effects of the Washington consensus on the Nigerian labor market.

Many scholars have evaluated the economic status of Nigeria and the common assumption, which seems to be the reality, is that the economy is in shambles. The Federal Offices of statistics in Nigeria point to the above fact and it is obvious that the rate of inflation has risen and continues to rise. The figures as measured are above 10 and this according to economic experts is not viable for progressive development. The reason for the above fact is that there are high incidents of corruption and implementation of economic policies is not well curated. For the reason of empirical factors evaluated and the non-credibility of most institutions in the country, there are reports of lack of economic improvement in the country.

This paper will evaluate the policies of the Washington consensus with a view of relating the effects they have had on the Nigerian economy. The general feeling has been that the policies have tried to improve the economic standing of the country. However, some quarters still decry this effect to claim that instead of bringing good, the consensus has had more damage. In the setup of the paper, there will be reference to different scholarly material that will help put the ideas in the discussion into perspective.

Keyword: Washington Consensus, Economy, Nigeria.

 

The Washington Consensus

Introduction

The Washington Consensus as clearly defined by the organizational institutions that came up with the idea point to the fact that there is supposed to be a free market whose broad effect should have a trickle effect to the whole economy of every country. The consensus, which is set up by different organizations such as the US, EU, the World Bank, and IMF, has ideas that sought to improve the economic standing of any country. For this reason, it is important to state that the advocacy role it plays is to make sure that there are free markets, floating exchange rates, and macroeconomic stability.

Guided by 10 principles that guide the operation of the various markets that it supports, the Washington consensus has had impacts in various countries in the world. Most of these countries like Nigeria have disturbed economies and it is for this reason that there is a need for the study of the application of the principles based on the individual countries as stated. This paper, therefore, seeks to make a study of the effects of the Washington consensus on the Nigerian market. One important aspect to note is that there are different countries that have implemented the consensus. It is, therefore, necessary to look at the effects as compared and identify the specific characteristics that have been observed in Nigeria.

Having pointed out the above, this paper sheds light on the effects of the Washington Consensus. More often than not, many have adjudged the consensus to bring more problems for the Nigerian economy that it has brought good. Looking at the evidence in the country, the paper seeks to look at the supporting literature on the above assertion and discuss the findings of the studies. After the same has been done, there will be a summary of the findings, which will be followed by the recommendations to improve the economic status of Nigeria. This will later be followed by a succinct conclusion will summarize what the entire thesis has been about.

 

Literature review

Numerous studies point to the Washington Consensus. These studies point to the fact that the Nigerian economy is in shambles. According to Hassan (2013), there are different issues that lead to the above issue. The Nigerian economy has been marred by influences from different quarters of the world economy. It all started during colonization, whereby the White masters introduced their own policies to the African setting. Obviously, the results could never have emerged as they had emerged in the developed countries for various reasons. The first reason is that the environment and the age of the countries were different. The power structures and other considerations (including political climates) were not the same; consequently, there is a disparity in the application of the principles of the Washington Consensus (Helleiner & Pauly, 2005).

Many other scholars point to the fact that there are several other measures that should be taken to improve the status of the Nigerian economy. In the past, many imperial powers have been accused of meddling with the affairs of developing countries (Stewart, 2002). This shows that much as the developing countries would want to implore their ideas on the affairs of the developing countries, the agendas are usually hidden and most border on the exploration of the various resources that the developing countries have. In the review of different scholarly dispensations, it must be understood that there are reasons for the implementation of the different policies that are advocated. In the understanding of most economists, African economies and other developing economies are usually faced with a myriad of issues that need to be addressed to the fullest. For this reason, there have been many studies that have focused on the discussion of the reasons as to why despite the intervention by world financial bodies, many countries still lag behind in terms of economic growth (Seriux, 2009). It is therefore prudent to refer to other scholarly dispensations that discuss the topic above and understand the link with the Washington Consensus.

The Washington Consensus and its 10 points

The ten principles of the Washington Consensus indicate that there should be low government borrowing. The government of Nigeria is accused of going overboard when borrowing money for the different projects that they undertake. The recommendation is that the country should avoid large fiscal deficits that are relative to the Gross domestic product. The second principle features redirection of public spending from subsidies. Some subsidies are considered indiscriminate and that is why the economy is in shambles (Lal, 2012). When the country is implementing policies, they should be pro-growth and development. They should feature issues such as the development of infrastructure and the provision of primary healthcare.

The other principle relates to the reform of taxes. The tax base should be broadened to make sure that tax rates are moderate and marginal. In real sense, the Washington Consensus advocates for positive interest rates and exchange rates that are competitive. The consensus also mentions the liberalization of trade which include imports and the elimination of quantitative restrictions. For instance, licensing should be made in a way that respects the conditions of doing business in Nigeria. Trade should be protected from all avenues of the government and other institutions that are responsible for the well being of the particular businesses. Uniform tariffs must also be implemented.

The consensus notes that privatization of state enterprises is important steps in making sure that the business achieve their objectives and profitability. Through liberalization of inward foreign direct investment, there will be more opportunity for growth (Fisher, 2012). To the authors of the consensus the above points lead to a definite conclusion that a rich scholarly review is needed. Most of the points need to be acted upon and in doing so, they must be evaluated for feasibility and implementation. The last policy is the deregulation which infers the abolishment of regulations that may curtail businesses from entry into the market. With such issues, mention should be made to pave way for consumer protection and oversight of stately obligations. Property rights in Nigeria have to be protected. The Washington consensus gives an insight in to how the same will be achieved.

Moving on, there are various factors which literature will help us to understand the subject better. According to Baylis & Smith (2001), it is important to mention that the politics of the world influence the way economic policies are crafted. Most of the crafted policies point to the fact that the third world countries will generally have an improved outlook because of trade relations and the effect of globalization. As Girigiri (2009) puts it, the issues of labor contribute a large deal to the development of any country. If a country’s labor laws are faulty, then the same will impact on how there will be a distribution of resources and other factors that have importance to the country.

The politics and the policy implementation formulae of any country usually influence the way that country relates to international bodies. In a study conducted by Igwe (2013), there are different measures of knowing if there are different benefits of implementing foreign policies in a country that has no similar economic status to that country. International organizations under the umbrella of the Washington Consensus could have a right agenda for any country in the world but the ramifications are always disastrous. For this reason, therefore, it is important to note that there are many ways in which the same apply to the country of Nigeria. Local laws and policies may also be in conflict with international policies. The above averments will be important for the discussion that is soon to follow.

 

Discussion of Findings (Effects of the Policies)

There are various effects of the policies of the Washington Consensus on the economy of Nigeria. Although some effects can be generalized to apply to other countries, many can be discussed in the Nigerian context. First, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is of the opinion that many African countries should devise ways in which they can reduce their inflation rates to go below the double-digit number. The IMF has bluntly advised African nations to strategize on how to succeed meticulously a single-digit inflation rate on their various economies. For the sake of Nigeria, there are many incidents where the feat has been difficult to achieve. One reason is that there have been frequent increases in the prices of oils and petroleum products. There are various feats of trying to push the prices down but this has caused certain effects on the economy of the nation.

For the past 20 years that Nigeria has been under economic turmoil, the rate of inflation has been increasing largely. In the observation of other rates that inflation has been growing, it is important to mention that 800 percent is a number that cannot be maintained the Gross Domestic Product of Nigeria spurs different sectors and it is difficult to fathom the effects inflation. Whereas the effects have been known to raise the GDP, the level or the standard of living can remain the same. For the credibility of the numbers that are been added, it is important to note that the government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is intended to make the best out of the pledge that is given to them by the people of the nation (Rogers, 2012). The government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is notorious for the hiking of hiking prices for the common goods that have been dedicated to the benefits of the whole country.

Analysts who are included in the articulation of the issue of the Washington Consensus have mentioned how inflation of different issues has been carried out in Nigeria. The spin off effects of the Consensus has led to different issues that must be tackled for Nigeria to remain one of the more advantaged countries in the African countries. In Nigeria, there are 89 million people living on less than one dollar an hour. The translation of the above figures points to the fact that almost 70.2 percent of the economy is living substandard lives (Jakupec, n.d). The unemployment rates in Nigeria are so appalling and this is the reason many find that there is a lack of continuity in the country.

For the most part of the day, many Nigerians do not take part in the construction of the economy. Many youths are employed yet there are measures taken by the IMF and the Washington Consensus to make way for the development of the Nigerian economy. When you look at the infrastructure existing in Nigeria, the infrastructure is dilapidated (Onwuka & Eguavoen, 2007). There are many reasons why there can never be a chance for emancipation. The economy of Nigeria just like many other developing countries must be read in the same terms as the exploitative powers are doing to the many countries.

To continue with the discussion, it is important to make sure that a capitalist economy adheres to the best example of what should be created. The prices of oil are often manipulated to a large sense. Nigeria is a mono-cultural country where there should be sufficient reason to make the best of what the economy should bring to the economy. In the oil industry, a few players are in the control of the Nigerian economy for quite some time now. It is therefore very easy to make sure that the control of oil is well measured against the other producers of oil in the country. Many countries produce oil in the world; considering Nigeria’s situation, it is only fathomable that there is a way in which different imperatives can be created.

The goals of development in Nigeria are affected by different incidents of corruption. The Washington Consensus seems like they were foul play. Ever since the Bretton Woods institutions were created, there are several incidents of malpractice involving the institutionalization of policies that spur economic growth. For this reason, it is important to note that the African continent, especially Nigeria is on the path of being exploited. Primarily, it must be stated that Agriculture is one of the best economic activities that should be made one of the most sustainable endeavors in the country (Lopez, 2012). However, the Washington seems to lay importance in fiscal policies that do not support the economic growth of the country.

In the imperative calculation that the trade organizations in the African continent, which fail to deliver their mandate, it should be mentioned that the same could not be compared to the organizations like Europe, which make trade easy. The example of OPEC can be mentioned. In the discussion about the growth of different organizations, the policies must be domesticated (Ndekwu, 2003). In the similar formula that is the Washington Consensus, it is important to note that the same policies if applied in the same country that is Nigeria, then it should be mentioned that they would not work.

The situation in Nigeria is no different from what has been happening the world over. For instance, it should be said that the systematic implementation of the policies has failed. There are reasons that can explicate the averments as created. The needs of the people should be mentioned and they should reflect the different needs of the people. There are subsidies, which should be enforced in Nigeria that have been implemented. For this reason, what should be said is the fact that the constitution of Nigeria still covers the rights of individuals that should be taken care of.

The above averment should be related to what the legal processes should point to in Nigeria. There are many features in the Nigerian economy that should be taken care of. Nevertheless, the 1999 constitution unequivocally identified that the citizen’s security and well-being is the government’s primary objective. That is the reason why the Washington Consensus has been seen as a fail. There are scholars who have shown that development can be achieved for many reasons. There have also been recommendations which mean that the Washington consensus was meant for the white and developed countries. It must be pointed out that there are measures that can be used to improve the status of Nigeria.

Summary

Looking at the Nigerian economy, one may conclude that the economy is in shambles; this has been caused by an array of factors and thus shows that there are different measures to be taken to ensure that all things are feasible. According to various scholars that have been pointed out above, the Washington Consensus has not created the Nigerian economy. Most of the time, the Washington Consensus has been seen as a destructor to the economy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. For this reason, it is important to make sure that all the policies that have created by the consensus must be looked at with a keen eye. Many factors have led to the stunted growth of developing economies. Most of the issues are political, economic, and cultural and depend on the state’s intolerance to fight the issues that have been plaguing the economy of Nigeria for quite some time now.

Recommendations

There are ten principles of the Washington Consensus that have been applied in different countries. According to John Williamson, there should be a way in which we understand the general mechanisms of operations that should be handled with care. The relativity of the matter should be carefully assessed to show the different mechanisms that should be handled. For example, the government of Nigeria should make sure that there is little government borrowing to the colonial masters who have plagued the country with loans that cannot sustain the economy. When there are large fiscal deficits, ten it means that the GDP will not be able to sustain the different forces of economic down pull.

Secondly, it must be mentioned that subsidy spending should be done away with. For this reason, it is important to mention that pro-poor services must be enhanced to make sure that everything (including social services) must be well taken of.) In this way, it is important to note that education and other services must be provided to the Nigerian people so that they can be empowered to face all the challenges that they face because of the challenges that the education sector faces.

There also needs to be a mechanism in which tax regimes in Nigeria can be handled. The broadening of the tax regime is important because the government will need more money in which they can undertake other projects that will empower the economy. Trade liberalization is also another important feature of the improvement of the economy. The Washington Consensus points to the fact that there must be proper legal mechanisms that will improve the well-being of different sectors of the economy. Economic development in other countries has been achieved through the implementation of the measures pointed out above.

Conclusion

The economy of Nigeria is closely tied to the Washington Consensus. There are several issues raised because of the implementation of different measures of policies that have led to the economy of Nigeria having the same status that it is having right now. For the benefit of scholarly discourse, the implementation of different measures means that there is a way in which the economy of Nigeria can grow. Foreign countries are also to blame because the applications of different laws also suggest that they cannot boost the economy of Nigeria. The discussion of the recommendations means that different policies and law should be followed and a localization mechanism adopted. For the above reasons, there will be a way in which Nigeria will economically prosper.

 

 

References

Baylis, J., & Smith, S. (2001). The Globalization of World Politics: An introduction to international relations. Fischer, S. (2012).

Girigiri, B. (2009). Globalization and Industrial Relations in Nigeria: Evidence from 1986 to 2006. Labour Review.

Hassan, O. M. (2013). An Appraisal of the Effects of Globalization on the Nigerian Economy. American Journal of Business and Management, 2(4), 296-303.

Helleiner, E & Pauly, L (2005). John Ravenhill, ed. Global Political Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 193, 328–333

Igwe, D. O. (2013). Nigeria in the age of globalization. Journal of Public Administration and Policy Research, 5(5), 109.

Jakupec, V. Foreign Aid: Cultural Values and Norms.

Kanbur, R. (2009). The co-evolution of the Washington Consensus and the economic development discourse. Macalester International, 24(1), 8.

Lal, D. (2012). Is the Washington consensus dead?.

Lopes, C. (2012). Economic Growth and Inequality: The New Post-Washington Consensus. RCCS Annual Review. A selection from the Portuguese journal Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, (4).

Ndekwu, E. C. (1983). Government Borrowing. Money Supply and Monetary Policy, Ibadan: Nigerian Institute of Social & Economic Research (NISER).

Onwuka, E. C., & Eguavoen, A. (2007). Globalization and Economic Development: The Nigerian Experience. Journal of Social Sciences, 14(1), 45-51.

Rogers, P. (2012). Nigeria: The generic context of the Boko Haram violence. Monthly Global Security Briefing, 1-5.

Sen, A. (2005). How does development happen? Cato J., 25, 455.

Serieux, J. (2009). THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF THE LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

Stewart, T. (2002). The Third World Debt Crisis: A Continuity of Imperialism. South Centre.

The Washington Consensus. Global Economics in Extraordinary Times: Essays in Honor of John Williamson. Washington, DC: Peterson Institute for International Economics, 11-23.Economic development in other countries has been achieved through the implementation of the measures pointed out above.

 

Random Muses

Hey, I thought you would be excited when I told you I had moved houses. I thought you would come visit my humble abode. It never hit me how that would put you off. I mean, I thought you always wanted the best for me. But guess I was wrong, you loved a butterfly, and now you have to let it go, lest you break her wings. The broken butterfly wonders where it will fly to……..

Stairs and Liquor Stores

Coming out of the shadows

I have been watching you silently

It has been about a week now. Since I moved in into my new bachelor pad. Having had to forego my passion for months, the chicken must come home to roost. Look, I will not trouble you with the intricacies of my absence for the last six months or so. The important thing is that I am here again. Here to complain about the author of Jephte’s daughter and virgin births. I am here for sole expression, to talk to you and smell the feeling of cozy bedside aromas of your stenched hangovers. I cut my goatee, but I never had one to start with. So you can tell my age. I am still young.
I think I have successfully convinced you not to ask me where I have been or what shenanigans have been keeping me from penning shit. It’s called life, and we handle it as it comes to us. So a few days ago, I was minding my business in town, trying to imagine all these people in the streets checking their messages if they have won any Stawisha na M-Shwari bonuses. I thought of how unlucky they must feel every evening when the only messages they received was for points accumulation. On TV however, were happy maligned faces of the zealots who have circumvented the paths that luck follows and their beaming pride in such misunderstood maneuvers bewitched the very beings of my random thoughts. Do you get the gist of what I am trying to pass across? Anyways, be that as it may, there I was on the stairs going to my favorite coffee shop (read liquor store) at that goddamned hour and guess what happens; yes the stupid phone rings. Let me tell you one thing about me, I don’t trust in these phones we carry in our pockets. It may have been that the girl I pulled a stunt on sometime back in my other life had just caught up with my gimmicks and she was here to show me psycho. Like that girl in Immortal Technique’s obnoxious. I stand for a second, unplug my powerful earphones and look blankly at the screen.
072 blah blah blah blah, that’s my mother’s number. I had forgotten, she told me she would always pray for me to avoid bad company and coffee shops. To avoid girls who frequented such hell spots. Girls with pretty names like Happy and Melody, girls with natural names like Anita. I answer the phone. Hallo mum, I was just thinking of calling you right after I finish up something small, I lie in my head. My mouth has yet to flip. My son, when are you coming home for prayers? You know I have been having weird dreams about you and places with red lights. Only God can tell us what is waiting to happen. But mum, your eyes have been red since the last time the school board wanted to expel me in high school. I think it is part of your recovery psychology; whatever that means. Oh!, I never thought, anyway, stop all you are doing and go pray. I turn back. It’s like mum is always watching my steps even from the furthest corner of her bedroom in the village. I shudder and turn back. In my head, Anita shouts “ Fuck You!”